Design: Christoph Rauscher, Julian Stahnke and Julius Tröger

50 years after the first man landed on the moon, is this back in fashion: China, Europe, and, Yes, even the Americans are developing missions. Recently an Israeli company sent in the night to Friday the first private robot. But why? Many other moons make significantly more. This starts with the name – Phobos, Enceladus, Neireid hot three of them, while our natural satellite has not brought it about “the moon”.

hundreds of moons in our solar system known. They come in numerous shapes and sizes, some have an atmosphere, other hidden even oceans. She circles around asteroids or planets. However, since neither mercury nor Venus moons have suspicions about it since years – it is viewed from earth, only from the height of Mars is interesting. On from there to the moon hopping to the edge of the solar system:

Phobos (Mars)

0,0057 m/s2, the force of attraction is on the surface. On the earth there are 9,80665.

on 17. August 1877 discovered an astronomer Phobos, but to puzzle is how the Mars moon was created. Researchers tend to be at the moment that he has formed after a massive planetary disaster of debris (Planetary and Space Science: Guiranna, 2011 & Astronomy and Astrophysics Review: Rosenblatt, 2011) – it could have been very different. Also unclear is the emergence of a strange course of ditches and the brilliant Stickney crater; with nine kilometres in diameter, the largest impact crater on the moon. Recently, a Team has announced, a massive impact led to the crater, as well as to fly around the debris. These are by Phobos’ low attraction, as well as its Rotation and the greater attraction of a Mars criss-cross over the surface of the moon rolled up, and have the exceptional Furrows in his face, dug (Planetary and Space Science: Ramsley & Head, 2018). This is so far a guess. More speculation, there are just about Phobos’ inner self: Because of its low density of 1.88 grams per cubic centimeter, the speech today is, among other things, of a porous, sponge-like structure – the final decision is not documented, however, a total of six different compositions are possible (Icarus: Maistre et al., 2019). The astronomers of the world had hoped for, once the salvation of the Russian Mission Fobos-Grunt. Unfortunately, however, there were problems with the calculation. Instead of doing on Phobos’ surface, in an amicable way, and to bring samples back to earth, was caught by the probe on an earth orbit to burn up in the earth’s atmosphere.

Europe (Jupiter)

9806,8 kilometers, the circumference is at the Equator. Earth: 40.030,2 Kilometers.

a Total of 79 moons of different sizes on different orbits around the Jupiter according to current knowledge. This makes the entire System to a curiosity, but under the moons there are particularly special nerds. Europe, for example. Since Europe is not a dusty crater in the ball, but a sparkling Eisknubbel, he is regarded as one of the few promising places in the solar system to find life. As our Planet Europe is to have an iron core, a stony mantle and a salt-water ocean. Unlike on earth, however, is this ocean of a 20 km thick layer of ice and is between 60 and 150 km deep (Science: Iess et al., 2014). Cute Europe’s giant water fountains that shoot from time to time up to a height of 200 kilometers to look at:. To learn more, to approach the Esa probe Juice the moon, at the earliest, the end of the next decade properly. The provisions of the Cospar Reports the following, without the risk of contamination by Erdkeime.

Io (Jupiter)

3,528 g/cm3 is the density. The earth is about one and a half times denser.

dawn of the moon, Moon, Peterchens mondfahrt – our moon some Central appearance in the pop culture already had. In 2001: A Space Odyssey, another ran: Jupiter’s Io was allowed, however. To move to an abandoned spaceship, floating astronauts in the Film on a space walk on the moon – that was very dangerous, because Io is also valid in reality as the volcanically most active body in the solar system (about Science: Spencer et al., 2007/Geophysical Research Letters: Rathbun, et al.,2002).

it is Estimated that up to 400 volcanoes on Io for mile-high lava fountains, a silicate-rich lava ocean adorns its surface and the atmosphere mainly consists of sulphur dioxide; on the earth, by the way, is a preservative. The space probes Voyager and Cassini, have flown past, including Galileo, New Horizons, Juno and the Hubble telescope threw in the meantime, have a look at him. In 2022, the Esa probe Juice is to control the Jupiter, it has Io not in focus, but throw in the fly-past views of him. Which is desirable, because it is the Belief that life as we know it, is on Io is impossible, although there is. What is, however, not with life as we know it?

Enceladus (Saturn)

32.9 hours a day and, therefore, of 8.9 hours longer than on earth lasts.

Not only Enceladus, the celestial body with the largest albedo in the solar system, reflecting about 99 percent of the sun’s light. The small moon is also the hearts of astrobiologists looking for life in space, beat. From him, icy fountains shoot up, to provide clues to an underground ocean with hydrothermal activity. In Enceladus, at least 90 degrees Celsius, to gush hot water and analyses of the fountains suggest that the essential building blocks for life are present; silicon dioxide particles such were among Astro-biologists and space researchers for storms of enthusiasm (Nature: post-Berg et al., 2009 & Science: Iess et al., 2014). During the search of living organisms continues, the volcanic ice ball for a pretty pastime: he sprayed icy particles into space, the moon on his path of Saturn’s outermost Ring, the delicate E-Ring (Icarus: Kempf, Beckmann & Schmidt, 2010).

Titan (Saturn)

14000000000 kilometers, about the distance to the sun is 10 times more than Hede-orbiting.

Yes, Yes, that’s right: Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, had a ever visit. The lander Huygens part of the Cassini Mission – is, on 14. January 2005 and landed there. It is the first probe on a celestial body in the outer solar system. 72 minutes sent the Huygens data, the temporal Maximum at 180 degrees below zero on the surface (Nature: Lebreton et al., 2005). From the descent to its end, there were a total of 474 Megabits of information, including 350 images. The lakes and seas of Titan are mostly made of liquid ethane and methane (Nature: Stofan et al., 2007). In addition, complex chemical Compounds in the atmosphere, raining down to the surface and form there. There are weather, climate, and Geology on the earth (Geophysical Research Letters: Turtle et al., 2009). In order, however, are not clarified all questions. Something very Important it is to answer: Is it on Titan live – or at least the Remains of it? Clarity two proposed Nasa missions could bring. Since Oceanus is rejected – for the time being. On the other, the drone probe Dragonfly, the fate of the American space Agency in 2019 will decide.

Mimas (Saturn)

493647,75 km2 is a measure of the surface. The earth is charged with 37.936.694,79 square kilometers.

Why this moon is terrific? Mimas looks like the death star from Star Wars. That should be enough as a justification. Who does not want to be satisfied with fine! Mimas was, as previously, the smallest and innermost of Saturn’s moon for astronomers for a long time nothing more than a point, only in the eighties, photographed him, the probes Voyager 1 and 2 (about Icarus: Buratti & Ververka, 1984/Icarus: Dermott & Thomas, 1988). Later, the spacecraft Cassini approached multiple times. Your is due to, among other things, provides a detailed image of the year 2005, which shows the characteristic of the Herschel crater that makes the moon a Science-Fiction Look-Alike. If however, Mimas has the fire power to destroy an entire planet, may well be doubted.

Miranda (Uranus)

500 kilometers is the diameter of the moon. This is a seventh of the Erdmonds.

literature lovers in the planet Uranus. A few of its moons are named after characters of the writer Alexander Pope, and especially to the characters of the playwright William Shakespeare, so, too, Miranda, spell daughter in The storm. Without additional remuneration thereof to connect to The galactic Miranda is most famous for her weird Appearance known. Nasa compares with Frankenstein’s Monster – and Shelley was not a Shakespeare, because the moon is made of Parts does not seem together, fit together. The result is one of the most diverse landscapes in the solar system. There are huge Canyons twelve times deeper than the Grand Canyon. Due to the low gravity a stone falls from the edge of the highest cliff would hit, only after ten minutes on the floor. Geological Highlight of the three structures named Inverness, Corona, Elsinore, Corona and Arden Corona, which differ from the environment are strong, because to them, significantly fewer craters than in the environment (Icarus: Hillier, Helfenstein & Veverka, 1989). In 30 years, no comparable objects have been found on celestial bodies. From the myriad of typical craters, by the way, at least seven have made a name for itself. They are called as characters from the tempest; so that everything is in order.

Triton (Neptune)

354759 km is the semi-major axis length of the earth € 149.6 million kilometers.

The earth rotates in a counterclockwise direction, the moon orbits in the same direction. Also, Mars rotates in a counterclockwise direction, Phobos is orbiting it in the same direction. And Neptune does it – but its moon Triton is usually! According to the currency that the gods are above it all, the largest of the 13 Neptune moons opposite to the direction of rotation of the planet, a retro-orbit degrees of turns. Unique Triton in this case, the combination of the direction of rotation, size and that it holds relatively little distance to his planet. So it may act first, conventionally, the Neptune always the same side to turn to as the earth’s moon the earth – care: an unusual steeply inclined axis of rotation, in Triton’s case, both of the polar region of the sun in the meantime. So far, travelled alone, NASA’s probe, Voyager 2, in 1989, in its vicinity, and not found on the icy surface, only a temperature of around minus 235 degrees Celsius, but watching even geysers (Science: Smith et al., 1989 / Science: Stone & Miner, 1989 /Science: Cruikshank et al., 1993). This makes Triton one of the few geologically active celestial body in the solar system.

Nereid (Neptune)

0,7507 is the eccentricity of the orbit. The eccentric is the most of a planetary moon in the solar system. The earth is 0,01671123.

The nymphs of the sea to protect the shipwrecked, and to entertain the sailors with Games. According to beautiful and you should be, according to the Greek mythology. It was only to designate a Neptune moon, according to them: Nereid, was discovered more than 100 years after Triton, his neighbor and rival, but otherwise nothing (Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific: Kuiper, 1949). On the contrary: He holds a unique record, because he has the most eccentric orbit of a planet moon in the solar system that is known so far. On a highly elliptical path Nereid orbits Neptune every 360 earth days. As the circle is compressed, the Nereid, by All, gives the eccentricity. You will be between the estimates 0 and 1 – 0 would be a pure circle, and is for the galactic sea nymph of 0.75. For comparison: the earth’s orbit is 0,0167. It follows that the outermost of Neptune’s moon is approaching its bluish looking planet time around 1.355.000 kilometers, to get rid of it on up to 9.625.000 kilometers.

S/2015 (136472) 1 (Makemake)

-239,15 degrees Celsius prevail, on average, on the surface. For the earth is 14 degrees apply as an average temperature.

criticism of this choice is to be expected – after all, the planet gear scal rigidity and Pluto is Once again ignored and make make just der second brightest officially recognized dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt chosen to a natural satellite orbiting. But make make, this cute small moon S/2015 (136472) 1, nickname MK2, which is surprisingly dark as coal and a diameter of approximately 170 kilometers (Astrophysical Journal Letters: Parker et al. 2016). The moon’s orbit around makemake is approximately at a distance of 21,000 kilometers, whether in a circular or elliptical orbit, is still unclear. Pretty cold it is likely to be, on average, to rule well minus 239,15 degrees Celsius on its frozen methane covered surface. Compared with earth, where currently 14 degrees are considered to be average temperature: pretty, pretty, pretty cold so. How Makemake got its moon, is so far unknown. A collision is a possibility, the dwarf planet could be captured of the object but also and to a special treat from the Depths of the with more than 2,000 objects peppered the Kuiper belt have managed to get.

All which has now Packed galactic wanderlust, is recommended at this point a visit to the Nasa exoplanet travel Bureau. For more articles about the exploration of the infinite Expanses you will find on our topic page. 50. Anniversary of the moon landing, there is also a selected collection of texts about the great step for mankind.

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