Contents page 1 — The embattled Revolution page 2 — The fear of Chaos was a big page 3 — Inner turmoil of the SPD page 4 — Strange amnesia On a page to read
The euphoria does not last long. At the beginning, but it’s there. Who is the morning edition of the Berlin newspaper of 10. November 1918 strikes, can be read as a Triumph of the Revolution, “the first demonstrations of Joy” and “rejoicing noise” of a people who “had come to independence”. The French Revolution with your Bastille-storm serves as a comparison for this new, in the heart of Berlin received the “greatest of all revolutions.” So exuberant to the prominent liberal Journalist Theodor Wolff describes the roll-over from the previous day. Not only the force of events compels him respect, but also the amazing degree of temporal orientation, order and respect, that make this Revolution really great.
The praise of Friedrich Ebert, the 9 especially. November, after the proclamation of the Republic and the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II, as the new Chancellor of the Reich, the rudder has taken over. Ebert did not know how much “a Revolution that wants to be spotless to stand, to face the defeated opponent with conservation and humanity”. Even if the exciting days to be a “spectacle for those of a Nervous disposition,” says Wolff in an orderly, peaceful Transition. The symbols of the Ancien Régime were not to remove, to smash: “A Mature, understanding people she creates, without breaking something.”
is Professor of Political theory and the history of ideas at the Technical University of Chemnitz.
diagnostician of the society for the bourgeois of the Time-political progress. Not because of a Revolution in the sense of an all-low-rolling history of a locomotive as in a Marxist idea, but along a carefully planned route, with responsible switchmen, and a gentle driver who is willing to also change the brake. In this way, followers of liberal-bourgeois politics want to make, in conjunction with Ebert and the moderate socialists of the new Germany.
, It is different. The bourgeois-social-democratic “Weimar coalition” breaks in June, 1920, at a time when the euphoria is long gone, and no one more rejoices in the Revolution. The parties that you have worn, and can no more force her to suck. The Revolution does not show up in the national myths of the budget, from no positive remembrance. Instead, it divides politics and society. How is this explained?
from the beginning, no consensus in the rating, has to do with the mixed balance sheet of this Revolution. Her biggest success was the successful change in the system of the constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary democracy was, no doubt: for the First time in German history, the principle of the people was sovereignty, established a democratically system of government. This democracy is historically extraordinary process of the November revolution gives historic rank. On the credit side the introduction of the freedom of expression and Assembly, the abolition of censorship and the Rabble – law, and universal suffrage for men and for women from 20 years. Years of age. The political upheavals, social reforms followed: the trade unions and the industry representatives agreed to the eight-hour day and locked up the thoughts of the social partnership.
the socialist transformation of the economic and social order, however, did not. This caused a dispute and disappointment in Parts of the labour movement. Even within the political Left, and violent conflict: advocates of a consolidation and expansion of the Rätemodells, remained in the minority, competed with those who, led by the social democracy under Ebert’s presidency – the formation of a democratically elected national Assembly preferred.
This Text comes from the magazine of history no 6/2018. The current issue you can buy on newsstands or here.
The decision for the parliamentary road to the Imperial Council Congress in mid-December in Berlin proved to be controversial, but peaceful. Even otherwise, the Revolution remained free in the first weeks of predominantly violence. Especially during the Christmas days and January 1919, inflamed but then street fights. The violence resulted from different expectations to the transformation of the state, society and the economy, to bring in the Revolution. The Verbal radicalism, came to a close, the social democratic Forward, as well as the Communist Red Flag, carried by the violence.
The murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, was to the bloody beacon. The use of government troops and free corps for military matters, the people’s Ombudsman and the first Reichswehr Minister Gustav Noske was the majority social Democrats as a “labour traitor”. A good get along with the old forces, was the accusation of the left, is more important to you than your own followers.
in fact, reform, which would have created a Republican people’s military, a key failure of the Revolution lies in the renunciation of a military. Thus, the government has continued to rely on difficult to control the military, the new highest representatives, the First quartermaster General, Wilhelm Groener, loyalty pledged, but at the latest after the Kapp-Putsch in March 1920 against the Republic of worked. Other functional elites of the Empire that remained after the Revolution, in the office, whether in the administration or the judiciary, as expressed in the beginning their Loyalty to the new master, made friends but never really with democracy. In retrospect, it proved to be a mistake of the new government, with a coarse broom swept and a larger to have a change of personnel brought about.