First Russian Tsar: who they really were

Another 22/02/20 the First Russian king: who he really was

the Majority of readers on this question will be answered: “Ivan IV the terrible” and they would be correct. Because the coronation to the throne of Emperor and the Grand Duke Ivan IV, after which he became known as a “Tsar of all Russia” took place on 16 January 1547. it was held at the famous assumption Cathedral in the Kremlin, where the Metropolitan Macarius put on a seventeen year old boy signs of Royal power: the cap of Monomakh, the barm (wide mantle, embroidered with gold and precious stones) and the Shrine of a particle of the cross on which Jesus was crucified Christ, then anointed his world, that the Holy Spirit gave the young man the wisdom to rule the country, and then blessed the young Ivan IV.

it would Seem that the question is closed? As it is not so! The annals say that autocrat called the grandfather of Ivan the terrible – Ivan III and the rite of coronation, or as they said, “the coronation” was written for the relative of the terrible – Dmitry Ivanovich grandson of Ivan III.

Moscow – new Constantinople

the end of the XV century, when the Byzantine Empire fell under the onslaught of Muslims, the question of the succession to the Byzantine Empire with its emperors bokovinami was an example and a model. To Moscow could really become the successor of Christian traditions, followed the Byzantine pattern to give the ruling persons of authority “from God” and Moscow as the new Constantinople. This idea was born at the court of Ivan III and forced his subordinates to rethink the approach to the entry to the right of the next ruler.

At this time at court was a serious struggle for any branch of the family of Ivan III will continue to manage the state. The Grand Duke was married twice: the first time on Tverskaya Duchess Maria Borisovna, the second — on the Sophia Paleologos, the sister of the last Emperor of the fallen Byzantium. From Maria Borisovna Ivan III was the heir to Ivan the Young (died 1490 yeary) and his son, the grandson of Ivan and Dmitry ( born 1483); from children of Sophia Paleolog, the main contender for power was the son of Vasili, the eldest of the sons of Sophia.

it is Curious that the introduction of the idea “Moscow, the new Constantinople” does not belong to Sophia Palaeologus, and its enemies — the priests and scribes, friends Dmitry and his mother Elena Voloshanka. Close to Elena, Metropolitan Zosima even wrote “Exposition of the Paschal” in which put the idea of continuity of power. In the essay Palaeologus was not mentioned, and the continuity was based on loyalty to Russia God, Zosimus called the autocrat of the king and claimed that he was put on Russia by the Lord himself. In addition to clergy, Dmitry the Grandson stood the princes of Tver, who disliked Palaeologus, considering it a strange and bracing, “of disorganization in Russia” from her appearance. Ivan III wanted to pass the throne on the high line and was considered the heir Dmitri, and in the autumn of 1497 failed plot against Dmitri and Sophia Palaeologus with his son populai out of favor, Ivan III decided to marry Denitria on “the great reign of Vladimir, Moscow, Novgorod and of all Russia”, making him co-ruler.

Power of God

There was developed a special “rite wedding”; the ceremony itself, equal to which in Russia yet was not, passed on 4 February 1498 at the assumption Cathedral. The wedding was pricestovali all clergy, relatives and the nobles, the square outside the Cathedral was filled with people. Metropolitan solemnly laid on Dmitry symbols of power: Monomakh’s cap (this was done for the first time) and pauldrons (the barm), then writes, based on the Chronicles of historian Vasily Klyuchevsky, anointed his world, and his grandfather Ivan III blessed the fifteen-year-old grandson “the great reign of Vladimir, Moscow and Novgorod”. The Exarch called for the teenager to rule wisely, and at the door of the Cathedral of Dmitry showered with coins.

the fate of Dmitry unenviable. He ruled together with his grandfather just a year, solving litigation in several counties, after which a new zagthey say, the supporters of Dmitry were executed or exiled, and Basil was pardoned by his grandfather and became the Grand Prince of Novgorod and Pskov; out from under opals and Sophia.

the fate of the anointed of God

Dmitry pushed from public Affairs, his name in the papers began to write after the names of the other sons of Ivan III, and in 1502 the grandfather himself was imprisoned Dmitry and Elena in the prison, even forbidding prayers to remember their names and call Dmitry Grand Prince. Why he did so is not clear.

Then Ivan III had raised Basil and “put him on a great reign of Vladimir and of Moscow and all Russia autocrat”. As later recalled the Austrian diplomat Sigismund von Herberstein, before dying grandfather was trying to alleviate the plight of the grandson and ordered to release him, but Vasily III put his nephew in the iron, and he died in prison in 1509.

Herberstein calls the two possible causes of the death of Dmitry: he could choke on the smoke during a fire or die from hunger; and Prince Andrei Kurbsky wrote that strangled him. About Dmitry’s death is reported in the second edition of Chronicles of 1518, where it is written that he died “in poverty and in prison.”

it Turns out that even before the coronation of Ivan the terrible in Russia was God’s anointed Dmitry Ivanovich, who had terrible cousin. It is not called a king and married to a great reign, but his power was consecrated by the Metropolitan, and thus he became the first spiritual successor of the Byzantine monarchs. Chin wedding of Dmitry the Grandson was later used for the development of the rite of coronation of Ivan the terrible.

Maya Novik

© Russian Seven

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