Our faithful allies: Mongolian cavalry in the great Patriotic

History 14/03/20 Our faithful allies: Mongolian cavalry in the great Patriotic

Although one of the most difficult periods in the history of Russia is connected with the Mongol invasion, but in the twentieth century Mongolia has become our most faithful ally. The contribution of the Mongol army in the war may seem small, but it depends. If, in absolute terms, the battle involved some Mongolian troops, but on the other hand, because it was almost their whole army.

the Heirs of Genghis Khan

the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan was the largest contiguous territory in the history of mankind. But it lasted a relatively short time, and was divided between Russia and China. Modern Mongolia emerged only in 1911, when collapsed Chinese Empire. And nobody recognized except Soviet Union until the end of World war II.

the Mongol army was created with Russian help, and the first with Russian and then Soviet. Already in 1912, 17 Russian officers arrived in Mongolia to teach military science created the first troops of the Mongol army. The number it was supposed to be about 2,000 and contain, she had two cavalry regiments, a machine-gun company and an artillery platoon.

After 1921, the Soviet Union actively helped establish the Mongolian people’s revolutionary army in Mongolia were sent advisers and weapons. By 1933 it was already four cavalry divisions and territorial parts to 1939 divisions became eight and bonebright.

But the concept of division in relation to the Mongolian army is not to be taken literally, as in size they were very different from divisions of other armies. Mongolian cavalry division (infantry in the Mongol army and is not expected) was to consist of two cavalry regiments, artillery and armored division. The regiment is also not very consistent with obdarenathe members and included only two saber and machine-gun squads. The division was supposed to be 1591 personnel, 1 723 198 horses and camels. Was supposed to be armed with 8 76 mm and 6 45-mm anti-tank guns, 24 heavy and 44 light machine guns, 6 chetvertnykh anti-aircraft installations on trucks, 9 medium and 9 light armored vehicles.

In the early 30-ies was delivered 10 tankettes T-27 and 10 armored cars BA-27, 1936 35 medium armoured vehicles BA-6 and FAI lung 15. But to fully staff the division armored vehicles (as well as other weapons and people) failed. Armored cars were the only members of the two divisions.

the Battle at Khalkhin-Gaulle

the Fighting on Khalkhin Gaulle on the one hand well known, on the other — about them very little information, and the General public view, often is not entirely true. In particular, the number of troops involved was very small. When they say that Japanese parties were involved in the 6th army — it sounds menacing. But in fact, the Japanese have had only two infantry divisions and two brigades, plus three mulabandhasana surgutskoe regiment of cavalry. On the Soviet side of the troops was considerably larger, but also, by the standards of the Second World war, not much: three divisions and seven brigades.

the Mongol army under the personal command of Marshal Choibalsan participated in almost all combat-ready forces. But efficient was only 6th and 8th cavalry divisions, and one regiment of the 5th division arrived in August.

the Total number of Mongolian troops were 2,260 people. The total number of Mongolian armed forces in 1939 were 17800 people, while the population of the country in 738,2 thousand.

aircraft of the Mongol army at Khalkhin Gaulle was represented by nine aircraft P-5. Interestingly, the first aircraft shot down in aerial combat in the area Khalkhin-Golla was that Mongol.

On the combat activities of known more about the 6th division, which in August together with the Soviet parts of thalas with burlutskiy cavalry regiment. As described in their collaborative work “the Military cooperation between the USSR and the MPR in 1936-1940” and historians Bazaar Tzybenov and Leonid Kuras, one regiment of the division for fear of encirclement randomly dropped out, which seriously complicated the overall situation. In the battle killed the division commander.

basically the Mongolian troops performed support functions. But the loss of the Mongol army was quite large (given its size), and amounted to 895, of which irrecoverable losses amounted to 234 people.

Soviet troops lost 25 655 people, and the Japanese — 19 714, and 2985 of Bungalow.

At the end of the fighting, more than 400 people were awarded orders and medals. Both divisions awarded (6th and 8th) was awarded the Mongolian order of the Red Flag, 6th and even named Sukhbaatar.

the Manchurian offensive operation

In 1945, almost all capable of the Mongolian part was included in the mechanized cavalry group of the Transbaikal front, under the command of General Issa Pliev. Pliev for the Mongolian army is not a stranger, in the years 1936-1938 he was an adviser in Mongolia, in the creation of the Mongol army was to his credit.

the Soviet side, the group consisted of a cavalry division, infantry, armored and mechanized brigade, a motorcycle regiment, part of the anti-tank and anti-aircraft artillery. Mongolian — all four are capable cavalry division, monobromobimane, tank and artillery regiments, regiment. The number of Mongolian troops, composed of cavalry-mechanized group was about 16 thousand people, 128 guns and mortars, and tank 32.

it Should be noted that during the years of the Mongol army became stronger. The composition of the divisions has increased due to the introduction of the third regiment. From the Soviet Union were delivered more armored vehicles: 25 tanks BT-7, up to 100 armoured vehicles BA-6 and BA-10, 7 light armored cars BA-20 and FAI.

the Cavalry-mechanized group Pliev operated isolated from the other troops of the front, at a distanceanii to 250 km and the resistance of the enemy itself was not the combat capability of the opposing troops of Inner Mongolia (Pro-Japanese puppet States) was almost zero, and they all surrendered. Much more trouble than the enemy brought problems of water and roads. Serious fights were only Kalganskogo fortified but it was taken in one day.

direct the activities of the Mongolian troops is difficult to allocate. He I. Pliev in his book “Through the Gobi and Khingan” only mentions about the lag in the onset of the 8th Mongolian division. Of the most important references about the actions of the Mongolian troops — out of the two Mongolian divisions on 20 August to the great wall. Mentioned about the actions of the Mongolian pilots at the old scouts R-5, which supported the army as stormtroopers. As the Japanese aircraft in the skies was missing, and antiaircraft weapons of the enemy were not, even these old planes could fight during the day.

in short, Mongolian warriors made a contribution to the victory in the great Patriotic war, remaining the most faithful ally of the Soviet Union.

Cyril Shishkin

© Russian Seven

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