Contents page 1 — The Blueprint of chemistry page 2 — Ten elements were already known in ancient times, page 3 — irregularities researchers can naturally sit up and take notice On a page
Something that occurs nowhere else on earth and yet the rules of nature. Something so small and rare that it is not strident disproportion could to the effort that is needed to create it. A ten hectares of measuring research facility in the middle of a factory sitting in a large experimental hall, in the centre of which a hundred and twenty metres long, the tube empties – here exotic atoms can be produced. Two of them bear the place of its manifestation which is in the name: One is called Hassium, is a Latinization of the German Federal state of Hesse. The other is called Darmstadtium.
The tube is a kind of cannon for ion, the researchers here call it something posh “linear accelerator”. Ions are charged particles. Strong electric fields push them through the tube until you reach a tenth the speed of light. With this rate you will meet a very thin platelets. About a Nickel-flies-Ion of the tube exactly in the centre of a lead atom in the tile, floor and target merge to form something New.
“add Fusion, two existing to a new Atom.” Michael Block is a physicist and research group leader at the Helmholtz centre for heavy ion research in Darmstadt, Germany. Lead plus Nickel equal to Darmstadtium. After the Block has declared this recipe, and before he goes into Detail, he says: “Roughly speaking, the building is like LEGO.”
of Course, this is a very understated presentation, and it is a heavily ruched. Because the atoms together – in the case of a huge technical effort – is a patience work. “Only very rarely succeeds,” says Block. “When Copernicium about one Atom per week maximum, even if the accelerator supply round-the-clock and per hour for approximately five trillion ions were used as projectiles on the target tile shot.” Five trillion, five thousand billion. You could say: you need to very much for very little.
The research of the Darmstadt effect is pretty special, but it touches on something Fundamental: our understanding of the building blocks of the world.
Every Time here is a very rare Something is created, it is in direct connection with that piece of cultural property to its original form prior to 150 years ago, revealed that decorates so many laboratories and virtually every chemistry room on earth: the “periodic system of the elements” – with its characteristic Two-letter abbreviations. In Darmstadt him more were added.
This article dates back to the TIME no 14/2019. Here you can read the entire issue.
in 1981, the researchers began a secular work of Creation. Within 15 years, they made next to Hassium (Hs), and Darmstadtium (Ds), a further four of the elements: Bohrium, ., Roentgenium, and Copernicium, abbreviated Bh, Mt, Rg and Cn. Later, what is the nature of science almost as important were able to confirm that five other core creations (“reproduce”), which were successful for the first time in other laboratories: Nh, also known as Nihonium, named after its country of origin Japan (Nihon), the Russian creations Flerovium (Fl) and Moscovium (Mc), and. (Lv) and Tennessine (Ts), the wear of the US place names, but also in Dubna near Moscow for the first Time.
you were the greatest, heavy, rare atoms, which existed up to now. Therefore, the bulky Name “heavy ion research”. With a heavy-ion researchers, existence is something else than a layman. The in Darmstadt, Germany, created Copernicium about outlasted no the Milli-second before it disintegrated.
An area of the experimental hall is walled blocks with coarse stone. The Interior is taboo, as soon as the ion beam is switched on. Beyond-the-wall detectors wait, laser measuring devices, the high electric magnet on the newly created atoms are – or at least their Remnants. “Often we do not measure the produced item itself,” says Block, “but we identify the created Element by measurement of its decay products. From this we draw our conclusions.”
these elements Are actually, of course, because they correspond to the laws of nature? Or synthetically, because their existence had to be enforced? “Artificial atoms,” says Michael Block. “We say that because we have manufactured artificially.”