History 29/02/20 Unconquered people: how many years have fought against the Russian Chukchi
nowadays, the word nationality Chukchi strongly associated with two things: anecdotes about representatives of the people and deer, which are for residents of the far North as a source of wealth. However, such ironic attitude to this ethnic group is fundamentally wrong. The Chukchi, one of the few Nations of the Russian Empire, which until 1917 and did not submit to the colonial policy of the state and draughts of Cossacks.
If the Caucasus the terrible and freedom-loving people do not recognize the Central government, before the revolution was considered Circassian, in Siberia they were Chukchi. The amazing thing is that despite numerous attempts by the authorities of the Russian Empire to subdue this people, which has lasted for over 150 years, they all ended in complete failure. By the mid-eighteenth century the colonial policy of the state reached its peak. One by one, they conquered the indigenous peoples of Siberia. They were immediately imposed the fur tax, which at that time international trade was one of the modern analogues of oil.
In 1652 Cossacks on the Chukchi Peninsula, the Anadyr Ostrog laid and began to conquer the Chukchi. However, it soon became clear that Chukchi by its nature was very reminiscent of the Caucasian mountaineers. The description of participants in the events of those years, the local people were strong, sturdy, extremely militant, freedom loving, vengeful people. Often in the course of military clashes Chukchi was taken from the neighboring peoples Koryak and Yukagir reindeer herds, were considered in the North of the main wealth. Thus the Chukchi knew of gunpowder and firearms, but without missing a beat bow and metal spears.
in addition to the Chukchi surprise the Cossacks never surrendered, preferring suicide to captivity. This nation should be paid to the Russian citizenship with the payment of dues. Not an easy task.
Despite the fact that in historical documents the conquest of the Chukchi appears under the name Chukchi-Russian war, in fact daily of the fighting, of course, no lead. The population of Chukchi at that time was not more than 10 000 people, including children, the elderly and women, while the garrison jail consisted of only a few hundred bayonets. The main fighting was carried out from 1720 to 1750 – ies. Commanded the Russian troops Pavlutsky and Shipitsyn, who could not divide the power, but both had a rare cunning and cruelty.
the case when the Shipitsyn was invited to the talks of elders of the Chukchi and all of them cut. However, obedience of the freedom of the people by this step he made. In response, when in 1730, the year the head of the Cossack Shestakov came to the Chukchi prisoner, he cut off the head. In turn Pavlutsky acted more wisely, using the carrot and the stick. He persistently taught the Kamchadals to arable farming and animal husbandry. He willingly submitted to all the peoples encountered in his way, except for the Chukchi.
Pavlutsky chased them around the Peninsula. Under gun shots, after the significant losses Chukchi passed the “enforce peace”, but only for a while. Clashes of local residents and Cossacks passed constantly. One day in March 1747 Chukchi blatantly stole right from under the nose Pavlickova garrison herd of deer. During the chase, to punish the treacherous thieves, received the rank of major Pavlutsky together with a group of hundreds of Cossacks were killed.
“Leave them alone”
once in St. Petersburg he learned about the scandalous incident, in Chukotka were immediately sent punitive troops. But, to fight them, by and large, was not with anyone, because Chukchi chose the tactics of guerrilla warfare.
However, for fifteen years, government forces, with varying success, tried to punish the rebellious Chukchi. So prodhave agalos until, while Governor of Siberia, was appointed Admiral Fedor Soimonov. Having carefully studied the history of Russian-Chukchi war, he invited Elizabeth to leave the Chukchi alone, allowing them to live their lifestyle on their own land. The argument of the Governor was the iron: the land of the Chukchi scarce, and the territory so long ago and is under the jurisdiction of the Russian Empire. To the Empress the advice sojmonova did not listen.
the Situation was resolved only in 1763, when the head of the Anadyr party of Colonel Frederick Plencner, sent to St. Petersburg a report which resulted in huge numbers which cost the Treasury contents in Chukotka government troops. Income from the region has been scanty. The authorities reacted immediately. The Senate passed the decision: the party to liquidate, to demolish the jail, and the soldiers withdraw.
this way was the inglorious end of Chukchi-Russian war. Chukchi also continued to remain free, unconquered people until the revolution of 1917, after which voluntarily became citizens of Soviet Russia.
© Russian Seven
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