What the Chechens refused to return home after deportation

History 13/03/20 What the Chechens refused to return home after deportation

on 23 February 1944 Chechens and Ingush suffered mass deportation from the Caucasus to Central Asia. After 13 years they were allowed to return home, but went back not all. What has changed in Caucasians over the years?

to be Evicted overnight

Immediately after sending the Chechens and Ingush to Central Asia were abolished Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet socialist Republic: part of power transferred to neighboring regions, and the remaining formed the Grozny region. Ikromov and renaming of the former autonomy, the Soviet leadership wanted to get rid of any mention of the deported peoples. In the Central Asian republics, according to various estimates, was expelled from 496 to 650 thousand ethnic Chechens. Most of them were in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and only a few came to Uzbekistan.

Calling the reasons for such a sudden eviction, historians give different versions. Most refer to the official wording of the NKVD, according to which the Chechens and Ingush were deported for cooperation with German troops, and a mass desertion from the ranks of the red Army. The political scientist Abdurakhman avtorhanov called this version is not quite true: “As the Chechens might collaborate with the Germans, if on the territory of Chechen-Ingushetia, with the exception of a small area of Malgobek, untouched by the Germans?”.

Many researchers the main reason for deportation is a high level of gangsterism in the Chechen-Ingush Republic. However, there remain questions as to the application of the same NKVD by March 1943 almost all of the gangs were liquidated.

There is another reason, which today is increasingly voiced. By the end of the war, Kazakhstan has experienced a serious shortage of workers, which in large quantities are required, in particular, in the Karaganda coal basin and at the Ust-Kamenogorsk zinc production. For szapolneniya vacancies Stalin, allegedly, and decided to use the guilty of the Chechens and Ingush.

during the deportation authorities faced with a curious dilemma. How to deal with the representatives of these peoples at the time of relocation from outside of the Republic? For example, a native of Chechnya said khasuyev in 1944, he served in Sakhalin, proved itself as a good member of the NKVD.

Hasaevu was asked to replace the passport and nationality, to which he refused. However, to touch the obstinate policeman still did not. Why deport Chechens already in the extreme Eastern point of the state? “Then send nowhere” – that was the verdict of his superiors.

Survived, not all

the Inhabitants of the Caucasus were deported in haste, many do not even have time to prepare for the trip. “We have nothing, except flour. You ask: how do we take water? Of course, melted snow. Young men during stops jumped from trains, and collected snow. It happened that we were given salt water, but only in order to somehow appease the children,” recalled one of the expelled.

At best once a day were given hot soup, some didn’t receive anything. To give us something to feed the children women diluted the flour with water and watered them with the batter. Often children and the elderly could not stand the unbearable conditions of a two-week trip and die from starvation, dehydration, hypothermia and disease. All the dead accompanied the train, the NKVD thrown out of cars. According to some, to the ending point is not reached about 1.5 million Chechens and Ingush.

Arrived in Kazakhstan distributed to different districts of the Republic. The largest number remained in Karaganda, Kustanai, East Kazakhstan region, Aktobe. It was especially hard for those who arrived in the cold Northern part of the Republic. Exhausted and hungry they died in the first days and weeks of life in a new place.

With the hope of returning

a Survivor of deportatiYu Ramzan Magomadov spoke about the nostalgia that often visited the Chechens and Ingush for exile: “I remember how our elders waited for the return home. All these years people expected that they would be allowed to go back, and that the government recognizes its mistake, but many to this day have not lived. It was a scary time.”

the Deportees, put in the hard conditions of existence: they were forbidden to absent himself from the place of residence under threat of 20 years in prison, they had no right to enroll in technical schools and universities, to hold any office and serve in the army. Despite close supervision some students were able to return to the homeland of their ancestors.

Since 1955, the process of fleeing to the Caucasus became widespread. “The settlers left in Chechnya, tens and hundreds, and in fact, the decree about restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Republic only recorded the current reality,” – said Ramzan Magomadov. By the spring of 1957, the home was able to return about 140 thousand were forcibly deported.

the Researchers argue that before you can restore the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet socialist Republic in Moscow was considering plans for the establishment of such autonomy in Kazakhstan. In particular, suggestions were made to form a separate Republic of the Chechens and Ingush on the territory of mountain regions of Taldy-Kurgan, and Alma-ATA region. However, this idea is at the top of the support is not received.

while Caucasians in Kazakhstan was marred by multiple conflicts with local, primarily Kazakh population. Most major clashes, which resulted in a real massacre, occurred in 1951. The reason for the riots was the killing of a Kazakh girl, in which he accused the representatives of the Chechen Diaspora. Then killed at least the extent of 40 Chechens.

inter-Ethnic conflicts are still continued. This was one of the reasons why the Soviet government decided to establish the autonomy of the Vainakh in Kazakhstan, and with the coming to power of Khrushchev was improved recovery The Chechen-Ingush Republic in the Caucasus.

Well established

After the end of world war II in East Kazakhstan has become a rapidly developing industry and mining. In Ust-Kamenogorsk and Leninogorsk boil a large construction project began to build power station on the Irtysh, Ulba enrichment plant uranium, polymetallic complexes. Here was the focus of the deported Chechens and Ingush.

the Caucasians gradually there settled down, had families, had children. These places became a second home for them. No wonder after receiving the opportunity to return home, many chose to remain in Central Asia. Still in many settlements of Kazakhstan, you can meet compact residence of the Chechens, such as Krasnaya Polyana – the village of Taiynsha district, North Kazakhstan.

In the local schools teach the Chechen language, in the sale of no alcohol, and people live peacefully, without theft and fights. A significant part of Kazakhstan’s Chechens busy trade and entrepreneurship. According to the last census in total, Kazakhstan has a population of 32 thousand Chechens. And they are not going to go anywhere, because their relatives are buried in the Kazakh land.

a High percentage remaining in Kazakhstan, the Chechens can be explained by standard of living that they achieved in these harsh lands. It is usually higher than that of the indigenous local population. Many ethnologists noted that this phenomenon is typical for developing countries where economic power is highly concentrated in the hands of “market-dominant” ethnic minorities.

In Kazakhstan in abundance are not only urban Chechens engaged primarily in the business sector (cafes, restaurants, Parking lots), but also rural inhabitants who earn a living by animal husbandry and agriculture. With large farms, they often use Kazakhs as employees.

Left the Chechens in Kyrgyzstan, although they are much smaller than in Kazakhstan. According to official Soviet documents, in 1944, during the deportation in the Kirghiz SSR was sent to 85,5 thousand Chechens, or 20 thousand families. For 2009 there are about 2000 people, mainly in the Chui valley from Kemin to Chaldobar.

Those who survived the eviction, remember that the warm and prosperous Kyrgyzstan they perceived as a Paradise, given the mass deaths from hunger and cold in Kazakhstan. The local population met Chechens as guests, sharing with them bread and fruit, and strongly supporting. We can understand those of the Chechens, which even after the restoration of autonomy in the Caucasus did not want to leave this hospitable and blessed land.

Russian Seven

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