What the peoples of the USSR the worst know Russian language

History 01/03/20 What the peoples of the USSR worse only knew Russian language

the Soviet government already in 20 years have embarked on an intensified centralization of government. This was done not only by officials but also by the intense mutual penetration of culture: press, literature, radio. Was not the tendency to spread everywhere Russian language. On the contrary, throughout the existence of the USSR was carried out huge work on the development of local languages. Russian was common, owning them, you could get a good education, a career, to have access to the vast cultural heritage; in Russian were published in the Central press.

How did the language question in the Soviet Union

the Bolsheviks sought to gain influence among those sectors of the population that were not involved in social activity in the Imperial power. To this category belonged many of the non-Russian peoples of the country. Along with politics and Economics, in the first years of existence of the Council a question was raised about local education. In 1921, the year of the X Congress of the CPSU adopted a resolution,

“…to help migrant masses nebelkorona peoples to catch up with the departed ahead of Central Russia, to help them:

a) to develop and strengthen Soviet statehood in forms corresponding to the national conditions of these peoples;

b) to develop and strengthen themselves in force in the native language of court, administration, organs of the economy, the government, composed of people from local, knowing the life and psychology of the local population; C) to develop the press, school, theater, club business and all cultural institutions in their native language.

d) to supply and develop a wide network of courses and schools as a General and vocational nature in their native language (in the first place, the Kirghiz, Bashkirs, Turkmens, Uzbeks, Tajiks, Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Dagestanis) for accelerated training of local personnel, skilled workers and the Soviet-party workers in all areas of management especially in the field of education.”

Since 1923 published Newspapers in 23 national languages. For writing articles brought by local correspondents and village correspondents. Of course, all the press was highly politicized. In September 1930, the Politburo of the CPSU (b) decided to reorganize the Glavlit, shifting non-party editors, and by combining the position of editor and censor. However, continue to encourage the development of national literature. As an example of combining these two trends, the work of Stalin’s “Short course history of the CPSU(b)” has been published in 67 languages of the Soviet peoples.

Why in different parts of the country had a command of the Russian language

the Soviet government stimulated the exchange of personnel between different regions of the country. Students the distribution was sent there where not enough staff. The people of Russia could go to work in any of the Union republics. In turn, many went to study in the capital. In Universities there was a quota for students from the regions: they were accepted to study out of the competition, so that later they took jobs at home. The inhabitants of the Caucasus and the Baltic States knew Russian, thanks to the development of tourism. There is a rotation of population, which contributed to the mastery of the Russian language. This scheme had the peoples of the far North. Before the arrival of Soviet power, they were completely illiterate and, subsequently, was fluent in Russian worse than all the other ethnic groups of the multinational state. Affected by distance from the Center, the dissimilarity of life, as well as a large variety of languages of small peoples. Also some peoples for centuries have behaved in relation to the alien very aggressive. The conquest of such peoples as the Chukchi, Mansi, the evens, until the coming to power of the Soviets was a relative. The Soviet government behaved in regard to small ethnic groups wisely and tactfully.

the corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, linguist F. P. Filin wrote that the achievements of the Soviet Union in the development of national relations and languagesCove “have world-historical importance.” Most of the languages of the small peoples were non-literate. Doctor of philological Sciences M. I. Isaev in his book “the languages of the peoples of the Soviet Union” pointed out that of the 130 languages by the time of the establishment of Soviet power developed writing system had only 20.

the People of the Chukchi

the Development of literature in the regions stimulated by the promotion of local talented writers. In Chukotka – the most remote in all respect to the region, began to build towns and schools. Was created adapted the script, began mass literacy. The first book in Chukchi was a primer “Calicalicus” – Čelgь-Kalekal (“Red diploma”), released in 1932-m to year. On its creation worked the students of the Institute of the peoples of the North under the leadership of Professor V. G. Bogoraz.

the First Chukchi writer is Tynetegin (Fedor Cinetel), author of “Tales CHUCHU”, which was published in 1940-m to year.

In the 1950-1960-ies began creative activities in the Chukchi poets Calcutta V. G., V. Tumnettuvge and others. Special acclaim, including abroad, was received by the writer Yuri rytkheu.

In 1974, was published “Tales and myths of the peoples of Chukotka and Kamchatka,” compiled by G. A. Menovschikov.

Books were published in Chukchi and Russian languages.

the People of Muncie

Except for Chukotka, he lived his separate life of the ancient ethnic group Mansi. This nation to the Soviet Union also had no written language: the first primer also was published in 1932-m to year. For many years he made a thorough collection of Mansi folk myths, songs, legends. They first appeared in the journal of the Khanty-Mansiysk pedagogical school “Soviet North” and the district newspaper “Ostyako-Vogulsky truth”. The first original work Mansi writers were published in the late 1930s and early 1940s. the First Mansi writer Vakhrusheva began to publish in 1938. Later in Mansi literature became the writer P. Even — the author of the novel “Two hunters” (1940). In the postwar years came autobiographiesChia Mansi lead authors M. Vakhrusheva “On the shore of a Small Joconde” (1949) and M. Kazantsev “a life Story” (1949). The first professional poet Muncie was the Yuvan Shestalov (a book of poems that “Sing, my stars,” published in 1959).

part of the works created in Russian, part – in Mansi language.

People who have had Arabic writing

Asian people used the Arabic alphabet, which did not fit in the Russian language picture. Of course, these people were within the sphere of influence of such countries as Iran and had no incentives to use the Russian language. There is a large had the power of the Muslim clergy that made these regions are almost unmanageable. Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, in these republics there was a sharp struggle for the replacement of the Arabic script to the Latin alphabet. August 15, 1930 the Presidium of the Council of nationalities of the USSR Central Executive Committee adopted a special resolution on the report of the Central Committee of the new Turkic alphabet. The report summarized the conduct of romanization for writing 1927-1930 Latin alphabet, was spoken in the ruling, “won a complete victory over the Arabic script, covering 36 nationalities with more than 3.5 million workers.”

Repeatedly faced the question: why the Turkish-speaking Republic not translated into the Cyrillic alphabet? It is believed that Russians did not want to intrude too in this matter.

Overall picture

As with the Chukchi and the Khanty, the same way the situation with the peoples Nivkh, Udege, Veps, Aleut, ket, Itelmen, evens, hunt, Ulchi, and many others. Russification of the local population took place in a fairly unobtrusive way, opposite was the stimulation of national languages and cultures. It was easier and more profitable to be an ethnic writer, rather than Russian. This trend went so far that, for example, Koryak writer named Vladimir Kosygin took the pseudonym Cuanto.

the Soviet Union gave the world such talented writers as Rasul Gamzatov Yan Rainis , Yuri Rytkheu. And currently, despite all the political upheavals, the Russian language continues to be a unifying factor for all peoples of the USSR.

Galina Pogodina

© Russian Seven

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