Another 26/02/20 What the Russians have taught the peoples of the far North
Life and culture of indigenous peoples of the far North is strikingly different from the life experiences of Russians. The harsh climate, distance from civilization and adherence to traditional way of farming left its mark on northerners who are failing to adjust their livelihoods to natural vagaries, taught some tricks and Russian.
the Ice citadel
the Warlike Chukchi, who long resisted Imperial conquest, he showed the people from the mainland as possible to defend by means of the construction of the improvised ice fortresses.
the Basic material for citadels served as a lightweight sled-sleds, which were formed in a circle, were tied with straps, covered with walrus skins and bathed in water, which instantly freezes, it covers the structure of the icy crust. Typically, these FORTS were erected on a natural elevation, which led to paratiste slippery slides that prevented the enemy to achieve the strengthening.
the Dazzling white of the vast snowy expanses of the far North and the burning sun contributed to the Chukchi and adjacent to them the Eskimos, invented to protect your eyes the prototype of the modern sunglasses.
Very soon this protection appeared in the uniforms of Russian explorers in the far East, which took a closer look to experience the local tribes in matters of survival in Arctic conditions.
To make points the North Chukchi used the tanned hide of a deer, which does narrow horizontal slits, dotirovanie penetration of light into the eye. In addition, the move was made on the same principle wooden sunglasses, the inner surface of the eye slits which stained a light absorbing dark gray or black color. Glasses were created individually for each person and storageNiles in a special carved box, underlining the great value of this subject for survival.
the Eskimos to the grave with the deceased relatives definitely put sunglasses that they called “ishaak” and made of whalebone and leather, and from bone plates and tendons of animals. Such items were discovered by archaeologists in the Chukchi villages Pauilhac and Aquan.
by the Way, the Yakuts also had in its Arsenal, this piece of haberdashery, but unlike Chukcha-eskimo version of the eye holes they had cruciform shape, and the whole surface was covered with intricate carvings. In our day these are the “points North” became the main symbol and a prize held in Yakutia festival “White moss”.
Russian borrowed from the peoples of the far North of their traditional shoes with felt sole and double sided fur, which eventscope dialect called boots, which means “boots”, and the Nanai, the “making”. Combining the warmth and comfort they were made of reindeer skin – the skin removed from the lower part of the limbs of the deer. Allows a person to make long transitions and do the usual things in the cold to -50°C, the boots were made by hand and therefore each pair was unique. In addition to covering the entire leg high winter boots, there was a truncated summer ankle version of this Shoe, for tailoring which used leather or suede made of reindeer skins – rovduga.
having become Acquainted with the representatives of the far North the Russian, borrowed from them the modes of transportation, dog sledding, which was subsequently applied to polar research.
Russian travelers took as a basis the methodology and equipment used by the Nenets, and they had so much confidence in the inhabitants of the harsh edges that didn’t even try to adjust anything in their technique.
Harnessed in the lungs, but the long birch Nenets sledges hardy sled dogs in other words, the Samoyeds, the members of the expeditions knew that their caravan will not be able to develop greater speed but during the day, they could cover the distance of 80 km Without problems held at the ice hummocks and deep snow, Nenets harness out of 13 dogs could carry about 500 kg of cargo, and that’s without sitting in a sleigh rider. Because of the peculiarities of the harness, when the reins were pulled together between the hind legs of animals in the cohort sled fell only neutered dogs. To improve the slip in the winter time runners periodically covered with three-millimeter layer of ice, and in summer used light weight and a shorter sled that is collected from the larch.
in Addition to the development of the Arctic on a dog sled, Russian pioneers, including Theodore Litke, tried to learn it from the sea, which learned from the Chukchi seaside to control light and extremely stable on the water with canoes “agapic”.
Holding on Board up to 30 people this boat consisted of strapped belts of birch or pine frame covered with walrus or seal skin. The suede is provided with a slanting sail and oars, the canoe was used by the Chukchi for crafts, as well as for military purposes, and therefore depending on the destiny had different sizes and load capacity. The Russian explorers and Industrialists preferred to swim at medium boats carrying up to 15 crew members.
© Russian Seven
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