Assault on Ulaanbaatar: how Russian Cossacks defeated the army of the Chinese

History 29/02/20 Storm Ulan Bator: as Russian Cossacks defeated the army of Chinese

If not for the heroic assault on the city of Urga General Roman Ungern-Sternberg would have been one of many “warlords” and not one of the most mysterious figures of the Civil war. A descendant of Baltic Germans, who bore the title of Baron wanted to recreate the Empire of Genghis Khan and lead the Mongol horsemen Europe.

But before that he needed to take Ugra and become the ruler of Mongolia. After the victory of the Buddhist priests became known as the General incarnation of the deity Mahakali ruthless and resolves of the Keeper of faith, feeding on the flesh and blood of the apostates.

the City of Urga

Today the capital of Mongolia is Ulaanbaatar, a city with a population of half million, which is an amazing combination of modernity and tradition of the steppe nomads. During the Civil war in Russia it was called Urga, which translated from Mongolian means “Palace”. In the city of the residence of the Bogdo-Khan, the chief of all the Buddhists of Mongolia. At that time, Mongolia was a theocratic, and therefore, the spiritual leader of the country was its ruler.

In 1919, the population had reached 100 thousand people. Most were Chinese – 70 thousand and 30 thousand Mongols, of which 20 thousand were priests. The town population up to 3 thousand Russian and a small colony of Jews. After the October revolution in USU entered a 10-strong Chinese corps, after which Mongolia lost its independence.

Ungern decided to kick the Chinese, however, the first attempt failed. After a few months, adding to the ranks of his army with new soldiers from the peoples of the steppe, “black Baron” decides to try again to capture the city.

Psychological warfare

In December 1920, the troops of the Asian cavalry division led by Baron Ungern come to Ugra. The siege army was small – only 1500 people, with 12 guns and 4 guns. Was the division of the officers of the Russian army, the Cossacks, Buryats, Tibetans, Mongols, Tatars, and Bashkirs, which the Chinese are particularly feared.

the Mixed army was soldered by iron discipline and a mystical fear of Roman Ungern. Cavalry division had to dislodge from the city of 10,000 Chinese soldiers, who were joined by 5 thousand militia Urga. The weapons of the enemy was 72 machine guns and 18 cannons. For protection around the city the Chinese had dug trenches and prepared in the city strongholds of defense.

Two months Ungern was not going to storm, and at this time the city was filled with horror, emanating from the personality of the commander. Chinese generals took a strange decision and arrested the Bogd Khan. The act of the invaders angered the local Mongol and depressing effect on the already weak morale of the Chinese. For fear of soldiers of the Chinese generals never brought a superior enemy in numbers 15 times the troops in the field.

Fear added following episode: Ungren in the yellow Mongolian robes riding on a white Mare alone penetrated in Ugra. Drove into the yard of the manor, the Chinese Governor of the city and gave the whip a sleeping sentry. Then in front of stunned the servants and calmly went into the street. Put on the capture of the soldiers are unable to catch the Baron, he literally disappeared on the curves of the streets of Ugra.

the assault of the Mongolian capital

on January 31 result of meticulous attention to detail of the operation and the desperate bravery of Tibetans, dressed lamas was released Bogdo-Khan. After this action, the Chinese soldiers settled superstitious fear. The night before the attack Ungern was used as old as the world trick. On the hills around Urga, which, when hiding from enemies, the young Genghis Khan, he ordered to kindle a lot of fires. Solid saw the glow of fire, the Chinese were convinced that the enemy reinforcements came.

At dawn on 2 February a detachment of 200 of the Bashkirs and the few Cossacks attacked the Chinese quarter Mcmachen. The attackers were soldiers from the chain, and each had 10 ammo and when ammo ran out, the lastoval distracting saber attack. At this time, from the South quarter broke 900 riders General Boris Rezukhin. To move crooked streets riding was difficult. The soldiers dismounted and began to lead street battles.

Chinese military commander threw his subordinates and fled to the city. Part of the garrison entrenched in some homes and temples. Realizing that mercy from the ferocious bearded northerners will not, they fought to the last. Soldiers joined residents of the quarter, shooting at the fighters Risuhina even bows and arrows. Strong points defending the Cossacks threw grenades and torched.

After Chinatown was busy, three Cossack squadrons broke into the Eastern outskirts of Urga. Here were captured a prison, in which sat almost frozen to death Russian colonists and refugees. In consequence of the release of Russian Ungern was named one of the main goals of the campaign. Pushing deep into the city continued, and after nightfall on 2 February the battle died down.

when the morning of 4 February, the hills around Urga filled escape from the city by Chinese soldiers. The enemy surrendered the city. Trophies of the Asian division was 5,000 rifles, a dozen guns, food, and money from two ugrinsky banks. After the assault Ungern staged a pogrom that claimed the lives of 50 people. The independence of Mongolia was restored, and Ungern received from the Bogdo Khan a nominal title, but his credibility among the population has become enormous.

© Russian Seven

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