Contents page 1 — What if the world on a 1.5 degree fails to target? Page 2 — Dwindling ice sheets, the weakening of the Gulf stream, more chaotic jet stream, page 3 — Can dominate the human being, the climate system? On a page

have at least done what they were up to: to agree on the climate change conference in Katowice, as the decisions of the Paris agreement could be implemented. However, the document continues to be vague. A clear commitment on the researchers strongly recommended the 1.5-degree target does not contain the set of rules. Click here to read what threatens the view of leading scientists, if the earth until the end of this century, on average, warmed more than 1.5 degrees Celsius.

It was a message that went in this summer full of messages about the unusual drought in Germany. At the beginning of August, a Team of climate experts warned of a global hot-time – to match the chill weather. In the meantime, the “hot time was named” even to the word of the year.

The earth could heat up over a longer period of time of approximately four to five degrees Celsius, the sea level of ten to 60 meters rise, reported by the climate scientists and researchers from the Potsdam Institute for climate impact research (PIK). This threat, even if the in Paris, adopted the Two-degree would be respected.

again alarm mood? Still, because it is foreseeable that changes in some places of the earth, and in Parts of the climate system are on the verge of reaching critical thresholds. From then on, you are setting global Trends in gear, which would mean an unstoppable chain reaction. The world stands in front of the Point of no Return. Tipping elements name the researchers of these phenomena have the stuff, start irreversible events to tilt the climate system. As well as the Team of the PIK reports, include the thawing permafrost in Russia, warming of methane hydrates on the sea floor as well as large Ecosystems such as the Amazon rain forest. What such a tilt element are elements, but exactly? Ten backgrounds:

1. Permafrost could always thaw

one quarter of the land surface of the Northern hemisphere, the ground is permanently frozen. Alaska, Northern Canada, large parts of Siberia – 23 million square kilometres, where they act like a giant freezer, in the gigantic amounts of dead plant remains are frozen. The ice thaws, they are decomposed by bacteria and the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane are released.

stuck Alone in the upper part of the permafrost soils up to 1,500 billion tons of carbon. This is almost twice as much, as there are currently in the entire atmosphere of the earth. “Alone, the Permafrost has the potential to exceed the climate targets of a maximum two degrees Celsius global warming,” says Guido Grosse of the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar – and marine research (AWI). Because the warming at the poles proceeds much faster than at the Equator ahead, it starts in the more northerly Latitudes to thaw already, The permafrost regions in Siberia and North America, now up to 100 kilometers. “Once set in motion, the quick de-icing process will not be stopped,” says Grosse.

2. The Amazon rain forest the heat collapse

another store for carbon which, when it escapes, as a greenhouse gas, CO2 global warming fueled – are the forests of the earth. “The rain forest of the Amazon stores above ground, especially a lot of carbon,” says Christopher Reyer, forest expert at SPADES. Because of the strong sun intensity at the Equator and the moisture of the forest evaporates there is a lot of water and clouds form. “This rain in the lowlands and on the Slopes of the Andes and supply the rain forest with fresh water,” says Reyer. Actually, a self-sustaining System.

Increases the mean global temperature by an average of more than two degrees, the forest in heat stress, which limits its ability to water evaporation and drought stress. A vicious cycle that eventually leads to the rain forest dies and the carbon stored. The atmosphere heats up. “Studies come to the conclusion that only the death of the Amazon forest could contribute at least 0.3 degrees Celsius to global warming,” says Reyer, although this number is still subject to large uncertainties.

time OnlineKartenJoe Raedle/climate change! What does that mean?

global warming is threatening the world, but how exactly? We will explain weather, climate and why the change is so dangerous.

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Ban Ki-Moon, UN Secretary General

say, why is this a Problem:

“climate change is a threat to life and our existence.”Please enable JavaScript to load map view history …

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The weather

… is the state of the atmosphere at a certain time in a certain place.

What is weather, what is climate?

The climate

… is considered the average weather over a longer period of time, about 30 years.Please enable JavaScript to load map view history …

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All good

Unfortunately, no: a Lot of damage are no longer change. The earth is warming in any case. Also, the 2°C warming affect Ecosystems around the world and threatening the livelihoods of millions of people. It is only the scale of the disaster can be contained.Please enable JavaScript to load map view history …

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Yes

Hot summer, high water, consequences of climate change.

is True. Many researchers are sure that there is a connection. Europe should not be affected as much as other continents of the earth.Please enable JavaScript to load map view history …

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Please enable JavaScript to this card to the story … 3. Storms and forest fires put the Taiga-woods

Not only the species-rich tropical rain forests to consider researchers as a tilt element. Also, the forests in the Taiga, so in the cold North, are threatened – where there is a chain reaction could be triggered by the forest loss, contributes to the climate change and its impact of the forest even more. “Rising temperatures increase the risk of fire, drought and storms,” says PIK-expert Reyer, with colleagues from nine countries, a comprehensive study about the dangers of climate change for the forest (Nature Climate Change: Seidl et al., 2017). The Problem in the Taiga: A weakened forest is also for natural disturbances, such as insect – or fungus-prone. Negative effects dominate with increasing global warming, so also here.

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