Decossackization: for the Bolsheviks

History 26/02/20 Decossackization: for the Bolsheviks “revenge” Cossacks

the Civil war in Russia – a vivid example of what can happen in the state when the government artificially perpetuates social, economic and political problems, not solves them. One of the most tragic episodes of the civil confrontation was the policy of the Bolsheviks on decossackization, which, if you look deep historical background.

the Cossacks and the people

Underlying causes decossackization – social divisions that existed between indigenous Cossacks and peasants living on the territory of each of the eleven Cossack troops. The Bolsheviks played on this issue and wrapped it in their favor. Cossacks centuries defended Russia and died on the battlefields, but inside the country they carried out a repressive function.

In every large city of the Empire was the Cossack hundred, which was used to disperse strikes and strikes in the factories and in the suppression of peasant discontent. When the tsarist government fell, the people have not forgotten the offense and sought to return the favour. The Cossacks this service is not liked, but as they gave oath, did his job well.

oil on the fire poured and the land problem. For example, the don Cossack army it looked so: on average one Cossack peasants had the use of the 16.9 acres of land, and the indigenous peasants born on the don – 15.1 acres. The old Cossack had to equip his son, and more often than not one is required for all military service. Drill horse and equipment at a cost of 250-300 rubles, and the annual budget of the family.

Each army was also responsible for mail, the construction of roads, bridges, administrative buildings. For these purposes the administration from each farm were taken away by 50-70 rubles. Blamed not the king, but local and non-resident farmers, who had, on average, 7.7 acres Wearth. The power problem was ignored, and hostility within the state between residents increase.

General Denikin recalled that at the conclusion of a Union between the Volunteer army and Terek Cossacks, the latter tried to “push” a contract in which each city taken by them is given at a three-day looting. Such thinking could only be those who did not associate themselves with the Russian people, but it is thought the majority of the Cossacks.

the Cossacks and the king

It was the Cossacks came to the new land first, where they put their camps and fulfilled the functions of border guards. After them come farmers, traders, tax-collectors and troops. The Russian Empire was a class government, which in addition to the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants were “Cossack class”. In exchange for military service they received allotments and did not pay the poll tax.

the beginning of the First world war, the number of Cossacks together with women, children and the elderly were 4.5 million people. From them 500 thousand served in the army-that they were the true support of the throne. No wonder the Cossacks guarding the last Emperor and the Tsarevich Alexei was a chieftain of the all eleven troops.

Nicholas II Romanov considered it their duty for Easter the first thing to kiss each convoy, thereby demonstrating respect and gratitude for faithful service, which they carried, not people, and the Romanov family.

After Imperial power collapsed and Russia withdrew from the war, the Cossacks decided that their service is over. The oath brought them to the Romanovs, became null and void, and to live together with “purses” and “men” they didn’t want. In the territories of the Cossack armies developed a movement aimed at gaining independence from Russia. How not to recall the words of the character of the quiet don Pantelei Melekhov that “stinking” Russia on the don’s not gonna happen.

the Cossacks and the Bolsheviks

the Cossacks met the October revolution of 1917 neutral, however, the Bolsheviks understood that in the future they will become a significant reactionary forcesOh. The revolutionaries were called the Cossacks “executioners” and not letting them participate in suppressing the uprising of 1905. However, within Cossack society was a split. The poor supported the Bolsheviks.

Start to put decossackization circular letter dated 24 January 1919.

According to this document on the occupied by the red army lands carried out mass extermination of the rich Cossacks, and those who resisted Soviet power. The middle peasants also used the measures under which they will not be able to organize themselves for rebellion. In fact, politics has become arrests, taking of hostages, accommodation in villages, military units, the withdrawal of weapons and the transfer of its other cities, as a pillar of Soviet power.

the Cossacks confiscated the surplus of bread, made with outsiders, the Bolsheviks purposefully resettled on the don, Kuban and Terek poor peasant from the Ukraine and the Central regions of Russia. The same measures were waiting, and the rest of the Cossack territory, where Soviet power had been established. As a result of such “revenge” for service, a centuries-old way of life of the Cossacks was broken, and the number of dead, historians argue till now.

Alexander Brazhnik

© Russian Seven

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