Golden Horde: why it was invented only in the XVI century

History 07/03/20 the Golden Horde: why it was invented only in the XVI century

the Golden Horde, or ulus of Jochi is one of the largest countries that have ever existed on the territory of present-day Russia. Also it is partially located on the territory of modern Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. It lasted more than two centuries (1266-1481; take and other the date of its occurrence and incidence).

the “Golden” Horde at that time was called

the Term “Golden Horde” in relation to the khanate, which was ancient Russia, it was invented in hindsight, the Moscow scribes of the XVI century, when this Horde did not exist. It is a term of the same order as “Byzantium”. Contemporaries called the Horde, which Russia was paying tribute, just a Horde, sometimes Great Horde.

Russia was not part of the Golden Horde

the Russian lands were not included directly in the composition of the Golden Horde. Khans limited recognition of vassalage from them, the Russian princes. Initially, attempts were made to collect tribute from Russia with the help of the Khan’s administrators Baskakov, but in the mid-thirteenth century Horde khans abandoned this practice, having made responsible for the collection of tribute themselves Russian princes. Among them, they identified one or more that were given the label on the great reign.

the Oldest princely throne in North-Eastern Russia at that time Vladimir was honored. But along with it an great reign in the period of Tartar domination acquired Tver and Ryazan, as well as, one time, Nizhny Novgorod. Grand Duke Vladimir was considered the main responsible for the receipt of tribute from all Rus, and the other princes fought for the title. Over time, however, the throne of Vladimir was assigned to the dynasty of the Moscow princes, and the struggle for it was already inside her. At the same time, the Tver and Ryazan princes became responsible for the receipt of tribute from their principalities, and informationdrank in a vassal relationship directly to the Khan.

the Golden Horde was a multinational state

Book name the main people of the Horde – “Mongol-Tatar” or “Tartar-Mongols” – invented by German historians in the nineteenth century, is a historical nonsense. Such people in reality never existed. The basis of the pulse that gave rise to the “Mongol-Tatar” invasion, lay, apparently, the movement of the peoples of the Mongolian group. But in its motion, these people took many Turkic peoples, and pretty soon the Turkic element was predominant in the Horde. We don’t even know the names of the Mongol khans, since the Genghis Khan, but only Turkish.

it is now known among the peoples of the Turks was only at that time. So, although, apparently, in the XIII century the part of the Turks called themselves Tatars, the people of the Volga Tatars began to be formed only after the separation of the Kazan khanate of the Golden Horde in the mid-fifteenth century. The Uzbeks were called by the name of Uzbek Khan, who ruled the Horde in 1313-1341 years.

Along with the nomadic Turkic populations in the Golden Horde there was a lot of settled agricultural population. First of all, this Volga Bulgarians. Further, the don and the Lower Volga, and in the steppe Crimea, lived descendants of the Khazars and many people were disappeared long time ago, the Khazar Khaganate, but the place still retained an urban lifestyle: Alans, Goths, Bulgars, etc. among them were Russian brodniki who are considered the predecessors of the Cossacks. In the extreme North-West the power of the Horde obeyed Mordvinians, Mari, Udmurts, Komi-Perm.

the Golden Horde arose the partition of the Empire of the great Khan

the prerequisites for the independence of the Golden Horde originated with Genghis Khan, when before his death, he divided his Empire between his sons. The future of the earth of the Golden Horde received his eldest son Jochi. The trips to Russia and Western Europe took the grandson of Genghis Khan Batu (Batu). Finally section formed in 1266, when the grandson of Batu Khan Mengu-Timur. Before the IOMNTA Golden Horde recognized the nominal sovereignty of the great Khan, and the Russian princes went to the bow for the label, not only in Saray on the Volga, but in far-away Karakorum. After they were limited to a trip to middle Barn.

religious Tolerance in the Golden Horde

During the great conquests of the Turks and Mongols worshipped the traditional gods and were tolerant of different religions: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism. Quite important in the Golden Horde, including at the Khan’s court, had a “heretical” branch of Christianity – Nestorian. Later, under Khan Uzbek, the ruling elite of the Horde converts to Islam, however, after that the Horde saved the freedom of religion. So, until the XVI century, continues to act Sarai bishops of the Russian Church, and its bishops are even trying to christen one of the members of the Khan family.

Civilized way of life

Owning a large number of cities conquered peoples contributed to the spread of urban civilization in the Horde. The capital itself has stopped roaming and settled in one place – in the city of Saray on the Lower Volga. His whereabouts have not been established because the city was destroyed during the invasion of Tamerlane in the late XIV century. A new Shed has not yet reached its former splendor. The houses here were built of mud brick, which explains its fragility.

the Horde were kept in good condition of the road to the Royal messengers, and foreign ambassadors, they were ready for replacement horses (Russian words “Yam” and “driver” from there). The Horde protected the foreign merchants and trade. One of the worst atrocities of the Horde was considered a lie.

the Royal power in the Horde was not absolute

the Khan of the Horde called in Russia the Tsar was unlimited ruler. He depended on the Council of traditional chiefs, as it was from time immemorial among the Turks. The attempts by the khans to consolidate his power led to the “great samate” of the fourteenth century, when the khans have become the plaything really fought for the authority of senior military commanders (Temnikov). My mother, broken on the Kulikovo field, was not Khan and a Minister, and he obeyed only part of the Horde. Only with the reign of Tokhtamysh (1381) power Khan has been restored.

the Golden Horde broke up

the Turmoil of the XIV century has not passed for the Horde unnoticed. She began to disintegrate and lose control of their subject territories. In the fifteenth century separated from it Siberian, Uzbek, Kazan, Crimean and Kazakh khanate and the Nogai Horde. Moscow has steadfastly kept of vassalage to the Khan of the Great Horde, but in 1480 he dies in the attack of the Crimean Khan, and Moscow Willy-nilly, to become independent.

Kalmyks have nothing to do with the Golden Horde

Contrary to popular belief, the Kalmyks are descendants of Mongols who came with Genghis Khan in the Caspian steppes. The Kalmyks migrated here from Central Asia only in the late XVI – early XVII centuries.

Yaroslav Butakov

© Russian Seven

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