I wanted to make Nicholas II, when dragged Russia into the First world

History 23/03/20 I wanted to make Nicholas II, when dragged Russia into the First world

Russia’s First world war had resulted in millions dead, the collapse of the Empire and the end of the monarchy. So far the historians have no consensus about why the country entered into this large-scale conflict.

Warning, unanswered

the Motives that prompted the major European powers begin large-scale war, and obvious, one way or another, related to their pursuit of geopolitical and economic hegemony on the continent. But what goals have set for ourselves is Russia getting involved in this military venture?

on the Eve of war the former Minister of internal Affairs Petr Durnovo in a research note warned Nicholas II about the dangers of the country being drawn into a confrontation with Germany. Even victory in this war, according to Durnovo, did not promise Russia anything of value, in the case of failure increased probability of revolution: “a Defeated army lost during the war, most reliable personnel of its composition, covered in the most part spontaneously common peasant desire for land, will be too demoralized to serve as a bulwark of law and order. Russia will be plunged into hopeless anarchy, the outcome of which defies even the vision thing.” Like the water looked a shrewd politician.

How did Nicholas II to the note by Durnovo is unknown. One thing is clear, the king was not guided by reason, and a Patriotic impulse. However, it should be noted that Nicholas hoped to the last to stop the war. July 29, 1914, he was sent to the German Emperor William II a telegram suggesting a “to transmit the Austro-Serbian question to the Hague conference”. William did not answer. After that, Nicholas II stated: “My conscience is clear. I did everything to avoid war.”

the Patriotic enthusiasm

the Official version about the cause of the start of Russia’s military action is the implementation of Treaty necessarilySTV before Serbia. Indeed, Russia, under the contract, was to provide military assistance to Serbia in case of infringement of the territorial integrity of the latter.

on 28 July 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and on the same day began shelling Belgrade. Russia events are not in a hurry, responding only two days later – on 31 July, when the country was declared a General mobilization. Germany in the categorical form has demanded from Russia to cancel mobilization, but was refused.

on 1 August the German Ambassador in St. Petersburg, count Friedrich Pourtales handed the note about the Declaration of war, Russian foreign Minister Sergei Sazonov, after which, according to the memoirs of the Minister, “walked to the window and wept.” 2 August, Nicholas II signed a Manifesto on the beginning of the war.

the President of the Russian Association of historians of the First world war Evgeny Sergeev said that Russia’s decision to go to war was dictated by her “fear of losing prestige and influence in the Balkan countries”. Serbia was not just an ally but also an important strategic base in the Balkans.

the Historian Boris kolonitskii convinced that analyzing the causes of the outbreak of war, never underestimate the value of public opinion. According to him, there has been “strong pressure from the street”. The entourage of Nicholas II, noted that the king in those days felt such unity with people, such as never was in all previous 20 years of his reign.

In the early days of the war in the streets of Russian cities have been mass demonstrations in support of Serbs, not without spontaneous pogroms German offices and shops. Anti-German sentiment and Patriotic euphoria was a factor largely predetermined the entry of Russia into the war.

the interests

the American historian Sean Mcmeekin explains the motives of the First world war rivalries and territorial claims of Russia and Germany. This idea reinforces the French diplomat Maurice Paleologue’s book, “Tsarist Russia during world war”, quoting the Russian Minister of foreign Affairs Sergey Sazonov:
“My formula is simple, we must destroy German imperialism. We will achieve this only next to military victories; we have a long and very hard war. The Emperor has no illusions in this regard. But to “Caserta” not recovered again from their ruins that a Hohenzollern would never be able to qualify for a world monarchy should be large political change.”

Boris kolonitskii suggests that Russia’s aim was the unification of the Polish territories belonging to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Germany, as well as the need to establish control over the Bosporus. A note addressed to Sazonov French and British ambassadors (M. Paleologos and J. Buchanan), confirms that on the eve of the expected attack of the allied forces on the Bosphorus, Russia hastened to secure Constantinople and the Straits. In it, in particular, said the following: “the Course of recent events leads Nicholas to believe that the question of Constantinople and Straits should be resolved according to the age-old aspirations of Russia.”

About the same in his book “the eyes of the West on Russia,” writes the British historian Geoffrey Hosking: “By the spring of 1915 Russian diplomats finally reached agreement with the governments of Britain and France that after the war, Constantinople and a large part of the Straits will become the territory of Russia”.

to Whom war and to whom mother is native

it’s No secret that the First world war was truly manna from heaven for bankers and Industrialists. The Russian army, which was under refurbishment, is experiencing a shortage of modern military equipment, weapons and ammunition. State factories could not fully ensure the front, and took over private companies, come true their products at inflated prices.

In the monograph the chief of the Main artillery Directorate (1914-1917), Lieutenant-General A. A. Maykovskogo “Combat supply of the Russian army in world war II” given dLa compare some numbers. So, 76-mm shrapnel (kind of artillery shell) at state plant cost 9 rubles 83 kopecks, while the private is 15 rubles 32 kopecks, the price of a 152 mm grenade was respectively 42 and 70 RUB RUB Profits for local entrepreneurs was evident.

the difficult situation in the Russian military industry used and the Western countries. The British government has offered to supply Russia with 12 million rounds of ultra-high prices, and in a very extended period, thereby disrupting the offensive of the Russian army. Despite this, the proposal of the British side was made.

Historian J. V. Majewski notes that in the period of the war, Russia “is increasingly a target for foreign investments, who make unheard of profits. Instead of 4-5% of the dividend received in their homeland, foreign capitalists received in Russia from 20 to 30%!”

Researcher Alexander Shirokorad sure that the pressure of the Russian breeders and bankers closely associated with the Anglo-French capital, had in the end influence on the ruling circles of Russia and contributed to the retraction of the country in the war.

Release any price

on the eve of the First world war, future opponents, Russia and Germany maintained close trade and economic ties. One third of Russian goods of total exports went to Germany, and a quarter German – went to the Russian market. German factories regularly fulfill defense orders of St. Petersburg. So, in 1913 for Russia, at the shipyard of “shihao” was laid down two cruisers – “Admiral Nevelskoy” and “Graf Muravyov-Amursky”.

However, in the summer of 1914, relations sharply aggravated, and former partners become enemies. For the historian Nikolai Starikov here everything is clear: Russia and Germany just bleed. And did it, in his opinion, England. Researcher Alexander Samsonov and calls the specific culprit is English Freemasonry.

Britain’s aim becomes clear if we look at the economic situation before the war. The total value of angLiska goods on the Russian market is almost 4 times less than the value of goods from Germany. In addition, German products hard pressed the English in other countries, including in the British dominions and colonies. The weakening of Germany to the UK was vital.

the surest way, which is not just used for English diplomacy is war, and other hands. Fun fact: conscription in the United Kingdom were only introduced in January 1916 – 16 months after the start of the global conflict! England waited until Russia was losing its strength. How can you not remember the slogan of English diplomacy: “to Protect the interests of Britain to the last Russian”. The first and foremost step to involve Russia in the war was the Russo-British Convention of 1907. On the eve of the fateful agreement of the German Chancellor Bernhard von Bulow prophetically wrote: “If the Russian Empire will unite with Britain, it will mean opening aimed at us front, that in the foreseeable future will lead to a large international military conflict.” “Will there be a Germany victorious from this disaster?” it was about von bülow. – Alas, most likely, Germany will be defeated, and it ends with the triumph of the revolution.”

But even before this tragic path was destined to go to Russia.

Russian Seven

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