Contents page 1 — The year in which everything escalated page 2 — The term “Kristallnacht” belittles the actual Events In a page

Germany, 9 read. November 1938: In the Kristallnacht, many people participate in acts of violence against Jews. In order to analyze the brutal Attacks, you have to take the whole year. A time in which the Nazi Regime began its expansion plans; in it the systematic Deportation of tens of thousands of people, organised and Terror as a means of forced, to drive the Jews out of the country. In addition, the historian Michael Wildt writes here.

The “Anschluss” of Austria

One year before the November pogroms, at 5. November 1937, declared Hitler in the military leadership, that he was committed to the war. The aim of the German policy, the protection and the conservation of the mass of people, and their propagation is, therefore, Hitler, and “the”. Necessary in the “extraction of a larger living space” that would not be in distant colonies rather than in Europe wanted to be. To the solution of the German question could only be the “path of violence”. First of all, Austria and the Czech Republic would have to be annexed, especially with the resources of the two countries to exploit.

Michael Wildt is a Professor for German history in the 20th century. Century, with a focus on national socialism at the Humboldt-University of Berlin. © Cordia Schlegelmilch

Consistently harassed Hitler, the Austrian government is becoming stronger and decided, in the end, the Wehrmacht on the 12. To March into Austria to invade the country to the German Reich “connect”. In the crisis days before the invasion of anti-Semitic pogroms flared up in Vienna and elsewhere. Jewish shops were looted, Jews arbitrarily arrested from their homes and driven, and miss, personal enrichments were on the agenda. By the spring of 1939, about half of the 190,000 Austrian Jews left their country, including thousands who were deported from SA and SS violence illegally cross the borders.

Adolf Eichmann, who had been sent from Berlin to Vienna, in order for the security service of the SS (SD), seized documents, centralized anti-Semitic policy under his leadership. Of the Jewish community Council he was blackmailing several hundred thousand Reichsmarks, and demonstrated that the SD in contrast to the cumbersome foreign exchange economic debates of the Ministerial bureaucracy with enough violent energy was able to leave the expulsion of the Jews from these self-financing. Eichmann’s Central office for Jewish emigration was the model for the SS leadership.

robbery of Jewish assets

pillaging and forced displacement, the politics in Germany in particular. In may of 1938, göring’s regulation was issued about the registration of Jewish assets. At the beginning of July the law Amending the commercial code to ban the Jews in many professions, especially pedlars, which is still some sought to stay above the water. In Berlin Gauleiter Goebbels, the police asked how the NSDAP, “to observe the constant interventions against the Jews”. Throughout the summer, attacked the SA, SS and HJ, Jewish shops and cafes, abused the guests, smashed the furniture, plundered the Goods. In Nuremberg, Munich and Dortmund, the synagogues were torn with a large public spectacle, where the Jewish communities, the costs of the Demolition had to pay.

Kristallnacht – “The people stood around the ring and stared at” 80 years Ago, destroyed people in Germany, Jewish institutions. Hundreds have been killed. In the Video of the Holocaust Survivor Zvi Aviram recalls. © Photo: OFF/AFP/

in January 1933, the existing Jewish organization, two-thirds no longer belonged to their former Jewish owners. Particularly, the retail sector was affected by the expropriation. The year 1938, writes the economic historian Avraham Barkai, was the year of the “End” in the race to the “Aryanization” of Jewish businesses. Countless party, and people enjoyed, which were previously assumed to be empty, were now on the Plan to acquire the remaining objects on the cheap. The real profiteer of the theft of Jewish assets, but the Nazi state, through the expropriation of the capitalists, anti-Semitic, taxes, and numerous forced levies for the Jews was occupied by millions of Reichsmark.

“action work-shy in the realm of”

the persecution of so-called “work-shy”, “Antisocial” and “community stranger” learned in 1938, a climax. Reinhard Heydrich ordered that in the week between the 13. and 18. June every police station at least 200 male so-called “asocial” persons, and in a concentration camp should bring arrest. With the June action more than 10,000 people, including 1,500 Jews were interned and the police, learned how thousands of people are arrested and systematically deported.


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