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Some residents of the Pskov region, Stalin deported to Siberia in 1950

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Some residents of the Pskov region, Stalin deported to Siberia in 1950

History 25/03/20 Any of the inhabitants of Pskov region, Stalin deported to Siberia in the 1950’s

After the great Patriotic war by the Soviet government’s policy of deportation of the population continued. This time the baton Chechens, Ingush and Crimean Tatars were picked by the residents of the Pskov region. What they did not please the authorities?

the War is not over

the Victory against Nazi Germany did not mean the end of hostilities. In the Western regions of the USSR, the war continued, giving rise to a confrontation with a numerous nationalist groups. First and foremost this applies to the Baltic States. During the war in the territories of the Baltic republics, with the active assistance of the German occupation authorities, had created a number of paramilitary groups that were supposed to participate in battles with the red Army. The most famous of them – “forest brothers”.

the increased resistance to the Soviet authorities and the difficult socio-political situation in post-war Baltic States determined decisive action – the mass deportation of unreliable element far beyond the republics. According to various estimates, during the period from 1944 to 1952, there were about 200 thousand inhabitants, and the targets were about half a million people.

a Similar situation existed in the neighboring Baltic States, the Pskov region, more precisely in the day before it is included in the Pechora, Kachaniv and Pytalovo districts. Local party leaders reported that the specificity of these territories is their development over the last twenty years, when the areas were under “bourgeois rule” and dominated by “private interests.” The region occupied by German troops only spurred the spread of nationalism and the rejection of Soviet power.

After the war, the Western territory of the Pskov region was basically a prisoner of a different sort of nationalist postanski groups. The struggle with extremely dangerous bandformirovaniyam one of the most important tasks for the party and law enforcement agencies. From the solution of this problem, according to historian Alexander Sedunova, depended on the integration of new areas into the Soviet way of life and restoring the region from the effects of war.

For the effective eradication of separatist organizations of the Soviet authorities resorted to the already existing Toolkit of means and methods approved another 20-30 years. Then promptly the KGB was subordinated to the police and the criminal investigation Department and divisions of the OGPU and local authorities gained powers to carry out extrajudicial proceedings on cases of banditry and, when absolutely necessary, to impose the death penalty.

the Gangsterism in pskowski

cleared up in the second half of 1940-ies in the Western part of the Pskov region banditry had its own characteristics. The composition of the gangs were mostly men from 18 to 50 years, with predominance of young people, was in their place and women, mostly relatives of the “active bandits” – the wives, sisters, daughters. The weaker sex not only pander to the terrorists, but was a participant in armed attacks.

the Most popular method of formation of Pskov gang – related symptom. Often their organizer was the person who returned to his native village from Germany. A man not finding a use in farming, went into the woods and “bowed to an active armed struggle and looting” of relatives and friends. Often already formed a gang came to the territory of the Pskov region from neighboring Baltic republics, leading in a new place actively promoting and acquiring new members.

the Complexity in the fight against gangs represented a huge number of accomplices from among the local population which supplied the rebels with food, clothing, and information about the movements of the Soviet authorities, the location of military units, the supply of food and weapons.

OdNoah of the largest and most well-known bands in Pskov region there was a detachment of Peteris Soup, Latvian by nationality, referred to as “the Third division of the Association of defenders of the Fatherland partisans of Latvia”. In April 1945, the gang consisted of 700 active members. The skate of this organization, sabotage in the Soviet rear.

it Should be noted that the leader of before the war, he worked as an agronomist in Abrene (now Pytalovo) and therefore knew Pytalovo district. After the Nazis came, he was in the special forces of the Reich, first in Riga and then in königsberg. During the active acts of sabotage, the Germans repeatedly threw the Soup in the Soviet rear, where he acquired considerable experience.

In 1945, the saboteur organized the “National Association of Latvian partisans”, which is intended to create a “democratic Latvia”. In her dreams, the militants attacked the village, stealing cattle, dealt with the workers and ordinary citizens, killing more than a hundred people.

Later, the Soup held a wide-ranging campaign to discredit the elections in Verkhovye Soviet of the USSR. However, to execute his plan, he failed. In a special operation, he was hunted down by agents of SMERSH and destroyed. But the fact the Soup was alive. A number of his successors continued the war against Soviet power on the territory of the Kachanovsky and Pytalovo districts until the early fifties.

Cheer forever

In 1948, followed by the first wave of deportation of the “forest brothers”, which has affected the Lithuanian SSR, a year later, this process affected the Latvian and Estonian SSR. Evicted not only active members of armed gangs, but also members of their families. Pskov rebels at this time did not touch, however, by the end of 1949, the situation changed. The country embraced a series of trials on the so-called “Leningrad case”, when detention was applied to a number of state and party leaders of the RSFSR on charges of creating a Russian Communist party – a possible alternative CCCPS.

Then the purge of the party leadership was held in The Pskov region. The new head of the region Gennady Shubin began to correct the “omission of the former leadership”, which, according to him, indulged an anti-Soviet nationalist movement. Until the end of the year the staff of the MGB and the local party members have prepared the list, which also included all “counterrevolutionary elements” and their accomplices. The bulk of them were peasants who, as noted in the documents, “for several years, in fact, were not taken for the agricultural machinery, taking part in hostilities”. They were subject to expulsion.

29 Dec 1949 saw the light of the resolution of Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 5881-2201сс “the eviction from the territory of Pytalovo, Pechora and Kachanovsky districts of the Pskov region of fists with families, families of bandits and nationalists who are illegally killed in armed clashes and prisoners and families of repressed accomplices of bandits.”

during January – may 1950 was the refinement of the list of those evicted while preparing the technical means to mass deportation. All the deportees were allowed to take personal belongings – clothes, dishes, small agricultural, craft and home inventory, as well as the supply of food to each family with a total weight of up to 1500 pounds. All other assets were subject to confiscation: one part was to cover the arrears on government obligations, other gratuitously departed to the collective farms, the third was transferred to financial institutions. Was supposed to be evicted 425 families, consisting of 1563 people.

the Direct management of the deportations was entrusted to a special Commission, composed of representatives of the MGB and the party and Soviet leadership. From Estonia, Latvia and Leningrad was caused by the cadets and military units. To coordinate the actions of the military had sent the Commissioner of the Ministry of state security of the USSR Yaakov Edunov. By June 1950, the deportation was over. All deportees were waiting for odin the same way – by rail and waterways in the Krasnoyarsk territory.

Taras Repin

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