Weapons 13/03/20 Verhushka Hitler’s “Dora”: the biggest mistake in the history of artillery
According to the chief of the General staff of the land forces of Nazi Germany, Colonel-General Franz Halder, verhushka “Dora” even though he was a real work of art, but in terms of combat capability but this Hulk was a useless weapon. According to many experts, “Dora” – the most expensive mistake in the history of the development of artillery.
the Idea of creating a heavy duty gun is Hitler. Visiting 1936 the factories of Krupp, the führer ordered to start work on the construction of artillery systems able to penetrate the heavy cover of concrete of the French Maginot line and Belgian fortifications. Calculations kroposki of specialists was reduced to tonne-meter: – meter concrete wall of the shelter could penetrate only semitones shell and 800-millimeter guns.
a artillery system that is unparalleled, has created a design group under the direction of Professor Eric high sensitive GAMM beta. The wife of a high sensitive GAMM beta name was Dora. The same name and got sverhdorogie. To fire this artillery system was at a distance of 35-45 kilometers, but “Dora” should have supertiny the barrel and the mass of at least 400 tons. Had a pair of “Dora” more than four years, spending astronomical for those times the sum of 10 000 000 REICHSMARK. Fortifications, about which Hitler said, ordering to build a supergun, the Germans at that time without waiting for “Dora’s” already taken.
the length of the barrel, “Dora was over 32 meters and weight of most guns without rail of the platform on which it was established, was 400 tons. Its concrete-piercing shell weighed 7 tons of high explosive 4.8 tonnes. After fifteen shots the barrel was beginning to wear out, although initially calculated on the SRT. “Dora” the complex was quite bulky and clumsy construction, being mounted on special railway 80-wheel Transporter, slojnostoennaya artillery system moving on two parallel tracks ways. The system in total served about 3 thousand people. To shot “Douro” was prepared more than a month.
baptism of fire “Dora” was held near Sevastopol in 1942, and the performance shots verhushki upset the Nazi command – hassle delivery and the embattled artillery system was greater than benefit from it.
At the disposal of the army of field Marshal Manstein “Douro” sent General Halder. Disassembled gun and ammunition were transported 5 trains (over a hundred cars). Only one staff cannons took the 43 car. In place of the “Douro” “‘ve been courting” for almost four thousandth collective of soldiers and officers of the transport battalion, camouflage and guard mouth, sappers, gendarmes, engineers, air defence units.
Arriving at the location (near Bakhchisaray) at the end of April, the first shot “Dora” made only in the early morning of 5 June. In Bakhchisarai houses from this screen were left without window panes. From 5 to 7 June were fired at the position taken by the 96th infantry division, 16th coastal battery, anti-aircraft battery of the black sea fleet, the Arsenal of dry Bread in the beam. Of the 48 shots taken “Dora” these days, according to estimates by the German observers, only 5 reached the destination. In particular, a direct shell hit the gun-the giant was destroyed, is hidden in the rocks North of the Bay magazine.
the trajectory of the multiple projectiles “Dora” track and failed – obviously they has left “in milk”, that is in the sea. The rest are mostly buried in the ground more than ten meters depth, and their breaks don’t put our troops in serious damage.
the Second and last “tour”
From under the Sevastopol “Douro” was transferred to the Leningrad area. However, the barrel had to be sent to Germany for repair – he was not good. “Dora” wanted to throw a “hubby” – the Nazis by that time had built another articleenters the country from supercade, nicknamed “Fat Gustav”, but the Red Army broke through the blockade of the Northern capital, mixed up the plans of the Germans. Gun giants hastily left the front area and not shooting.
“Gustav”, by the way, generally never had to shoot. And “Douro” in the autumn of 1944 was used at Warsaw during the suppression of the Polish uprising, it has released more than 20 rounds. At the end of the war the retreating German troops ferried “Gustav” and “Douro” in Bavaria, where the guns were blown up. The remains of superposed found the Anglo-American allies. After studying and documenting all that is left of these giants, they sent out “dead” at the smelter.
© Russian Seven
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