Where planned to leave the Soviet leadership in case of capture of Moscow by Hitler

History 04/03/20 Where we wanted to escape the Soviet leadership in case of capture of Moscow by Hitler

Stalin and his entourage were not prepared in advance to evacuate Moscow. After all, even in late September the front line was held the closest is 400 kilometers from the capital. Therefore, when German troops broke through to the outskirts of Moscow, among the country’s leadership and of the capital there was panic, which was passed to the entire population. This almost led to the collapse of the front and rear.

the First thing evacuated children

However, on September 5, 1941 began the forced evacuation from Moscow all children from 4 to 12 years. It was undertaken in connection with the frequent air raids. Children were torn from their families, taken away in Ryazan oblast, in the Volga region, the Urals, and were sent to boarding schools. All were evacuated more than 600 thousand children. Evacuation of children continued in October, when all of a sudden and had to quickly take everything.
September 30, began the attack on Moscow, the 2nd tank group of the Wehrmacht under the command of Guderian, and on 2 October on the offensive moved the remaining forces of army group “Center” under the command of von Bock. October 6-7, they cut off a large part of the forces of the Soviet fronts, covering the Moscow direction. Hastily summoned by Stalin from the Leningrad General Zhukov on 8 October, speaking on the phone with Stalin, did not rule out “the sudden appearance in front of the capital of the largest armored forces of the enemy.”

List Stalin

the same day, Stalin ordered the leaders of the commissariats and the first Secretary of the Moscow city and regional party Committee A. S. Shcherbakov to compile a list of plants and other objects subject to explosion in case of sudden seizure by the Germans of Moscow. In the list were more than a thousand objects. From October 10, began mining plants, power substations, bridges, etc.
the Situation at the front worsened every day, and 15 October early in the morning, Stalin unexpectedly came with kunzemskoi the country to the Kremlin. He ordered to Wake up the members of the State Defense Committee (GKO), gathered them up and ordered them immediately to draw up the text of the secret decree on the evacuation of Moscow. In it Stalin immediately made corrections and ordered to perform.

Actions in the capture of the capital

the Resolution prescribed the same day to produce the evacuation of the diplomatic corps, all of the Sovnarkom, people’s commissariats of defense and of the Navy in Kuibyshev (Samara), the primary group of the General staff in Arzamas. From the hand of Stalin attributed that he “was evacuated the next day or later, depending on the situation.” Beria, as head of the NKVD, and Shcherbakov was ordered to blow up factories, warehouses and institutions which cannot be evacuated immediately with the appearance in Moscow of the enemy troops. They were instructed to destroy electrical equipment underground, but not to touch the water and sewer.
Resolution, as we see, very vague, because they did not establish any priority in the evacuation, nor any of its routes, there was no reference to the list of facilities subject to explosion. Its implementation is different, “responsible comrades” gave rise to confusion, chaos, panic. So, according to some accounts, Kaganovich “took the initiative”, ordering, as the people’s Commissar of Railways, to prepare the Moscow metro to undermine. There is, however, reason to doubt this evidence, as Stalin clearly entrusted Beria and Shcherbakov, and it was about undermining not just the metro, but only its electrical equipment. I think that Stalin would not forgive Kaganovich such initiative, after learning about it. The closure of metro stations in the morning of 16 October is explained by the measures in the framework of the GKO.
October 15, of the diplomatic mission, heads of people’s commissariats headed by Molotov, members of the higher party bodies without interference left Moscow, but the next day began a General flight from Moscow party and Soviet workers, middle managers and company Directors, etc. that did not go unnoticed by the people. Panic gripped everyone. While closinge subway stations meant for all that the country’s leadership decided to surrender Moscow, as the metro served as a bomb shelter. On the same day, October 16, Stalin, afraid to let go of the controls, decided personally to stay in Moscow to the last. With him from the top leadership had only Beria, Mikoyan (Deputy of Stalin as the Prime Minister) and Kosygin (Vice-Stalin as the Chairman of the Council for evacuation). On the evening of 16 October managed to put subway trains on separate lines, and by October 18 the underground movement was restored throughout the volume. The removal of the underground of the building was postponed until the extreme case.

Where all evacuated

In the next two or three days the evacuation had been able to make a more routine nature, which to a large extent ensured by the slowdown of the German offensive. First of all Moscow has taken out the state Bank cash, the Executive Committee of the Comintern, the Central Committee of the Komsomol all people’s commissariats and their apparatus and employees with families, companies and the details of the Bolshoi theatre (in Moscow), Gokhran (in the Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk), Tretyakov gallery (Novosibirsk), Church leadership (in Ulyanovsk), various scientific and cultural institutions and organizations (in different directions). From Moscow was evacuated, the most important enterprises and their employees with families. Until December from the capital and surrounding districts were evacuated to the East more than 300 factories, and with them – 564 thousands of workers and members of their families. The population of Moscow, as a result of evacuations and mobilizations, reduced from 4.5 million to 2.5 million.
In case of the abandonment of Moscow, Stalin ordered to prepare a strategic line of defense East of Moscow over the rivers Volga and Oka (downstream). Were preparing for guerrilla warfare in occupied Moscow. Underground Moscow regional party Committee headed by Secretary of the Moscow party organization, K. F. Kalashnikov, arrange a rural teacher in the suburbs. In this role, he had to wait until the arrival of the Germans. Created underground warehouse of weaponsI and ammunition, cell, appearance, etc.
measures for evacuation lasted two months until, in mid-December, after the start of the Soviet counteroffensive near Moscow, they were not suspended. In January 1942, in Moscow began to return industrial plants, and in February returned to government agencies and the diplomatic corps. However, the equipment spare command points for the leadership of the country continued for the whole 1942. In addition to Kuibyshev, they were established in six cities of the Volga region and the Urals.
it is Worth mentioning that the first was subjected to the evacuation of Moscow main “Shrine” of the Soviet state – Lenin’s mummy. On July 3, 1941, in connection with the danger of air raids, it was in secrecy by a special train sent to Tyumen, where he remained until April 1945. All this time the mausoleum on red square was closed.

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