Who had the biggest losses in the Civil war in Russia

History 05/03/20 who had the biggest losses in the Civil war in Russia

the problem of human losses of the countries of the former Russian Empire during the civil war 1918-1922. hardly ever be exhaustively clarified. But some conclusions can be made.

the Military losses in the civil war, much less “peace”

we Know that direct military losses had a much smaller proportion of casualties in the years of revolution and civil war than the loss from various factors: terror, disease and starvation. At that time around the world witnessed a series of epidemics, among which the most deadly was the Spanish flu epidemic in 1918-1919, the Number of victims worldwide is estimated at 30 million people – three times more than people died in the First world war. It is unknown how many died from it in Russia, but, judging by the proportions, clearly not less than a million. The deadly effect of the disease in Russia in those years was compounded by a sharp fall in living standards, collapse of social institutions and health systems, and poorly developed in Russia.

a Huge number of victims of diseases recorded even the military statistics. According to the documents, the red army in 1918-1920 also died from diseases 283 thousand people – 4.2 percent of the total number mobilized. If we extrapolate this figure to the entire population of the former Russian Empire (without Poland and Finland), in the country from infections during this time died at least 6 million people.

How many died of the red army

Statistics on the number of the dead and the red army were investigated in detail in the work “Russia and USSR in wars of XX century: losses of the armed forces”, edited by Colonel General G. F. Krivosheev. For the white armies similar comprehensive statistics are not available.

In 1918-1920, the Red Army was intended to 6.7 million people, of which 1.3 million out Of which only the smaller part was written off for injury or SOStoany health. 743 thousand amounted to deadweight loss. And of these, only 250 thousand were killed in battle or died on the steps of sanitary evacuation in the army. Together with the troops in the rear of the districts, which participated in the battles with the “internal enemy”, the death toll of the red army is 407 thousand. These include the 283 and thousands dead from disease.

the Rest of the more than 300 thousand permanently retired is not returned from the captivity, missing persons and deserters. However, missing too often turned out to be deserters and defectors, and those who never returned from captivity, obviously, in most cases, fought then along with white.

Thus, the number of soldiers killed in combat causes, in 1918-1920, was only 124 thousand people. This includes those who fought on the fronts and with the “counterrevolutionary riots” in the rear. In 1921-1922, it is added to the 26 thousand dead and the dead, of which not all apply to those who died in battle and died from combat wounds.

so, the total number of red army soldiers who died in the civil war as a result of military contact with the enemy, does not exceed 150 thousand people.

How many were killed whites

to Establish such statistics the total number of deaths in the white armies impossible. You can make only indirect assumptions that are based on the number of troops. Although a total army of white guards and interventionists and the Russian counterrevolutionaries were more in number than the red army, but not all of them participated, and at the same time, in the battle against it. In addition, there are many cases when white smashed the Reds, much inferior to them in numbers. If in such circumstances, the loss of the parties were equal, the white troops would not have left after a few months.

the Total strength of the armies of Kolchak was highest in the first months of 1919, and reached under the estimates of the historian S. V. Volkov, 800 thousand people. Perhaps a few more were the population sizes, again fromth armies of Denikin in the autumn of 1919, as they took a more populated regions. The maximum total number of armies “internal counterrevolution” unlikely to be exceeded when any two. And the maximum number of red army achieved in the end of 1920 amounted to 5.4 million people.

At the same time as the red, white only a small part of the troops who were on paper, he was at the front and participated in the battles. As well as the red, white was forced to deal with “internal enemies” at the rear. Much less red as the number and resources of occupied territory, white had over two years to fight on equal terms with the Reds, obviously, only if as much smaller losses.

Therefore, all the white armies in the years 1918-1922. were killed in the fighting and died from combat wounds hardly more than a hundred thousand people, and probably significantly less.

It is, again, it’s only about the combat losses of the armies, but this does not include the various rebels against the Soviets, victims of the red terror and murdered white prisoners of war. The last one in the Crimea after Wrangel left more than 50 thousand people, and they were all destroyed.

Thus, in the Russian civil war much deadlier than any military action for the people was epidemic disease and political terror

Yaroslav Butakov

© Russian Seven

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