History 24/03/20 Who was Genghis Khan nationality: what scientists say
the Term “Mongol-Tatars” was included into scientific use not before the XIX century. So scientists have nicknamed the totality of the peoples, probably of Mongolian and Turkic origin, who in the thirteenth century a series of conquests under the leadership of first Temudgin, called Genghis Khan (great Khan in Turkic), and then his successors.
“Mongol-Tatars” – such people did not exist
the Expression “Mongol-Tatars” comes from the composition of the papal Ambassador PLANO Carpini, “History of mangalov called us Tatars”. Carpini in 1245-1247, he made a diplomatic mission to Central Asia, to the great Khan Guyco. Prior to this, the conquerors were called in European annals, only the “Tatars,” as they always called in the Russian Chronicles (the latter never knew of the term “Mongols”).
it is Evident that during the campaigns for the States of Central Asia, not to mention the invasion of Eastern Europe, the so-called “Mongol-Tatar” was a whole set of tribes, and a predominant place among them, as can be judged by the extant names of the khans, their wives and retainers, was occupied by Turkic and not Mongol peoples. Of course, they have very little to do with how modern Mongols and Tatars. In a sense, all the peoples of these language groups on the territory of Russia and the former Soviet Union are descendants of the “Mongol” invaders.
Therefore, in any matter that proceeds from the “Mongol-Tatars”, should contain the definition of whom we mean by that name – in fact, never existed people? However, there may be no need in these ethnic definitions? If modern science is any more specific clue than digging up long-forgotten meanings of words in the ancient manuscripts?
the Haplogroup of Genghis Khan
In recent decadesilitia widely deployed research in population genetics. We know that all mankind is divided into haplogroups according to the Y-chromosome, transmitted to descendants in direct male line, and mtDNA, is transmitted through the direct female line (but is present also in men). The research, conducted among the peoples of Central Asia, found particularly interesting the fact of the wide distribution there are several treasure (branches) of Y-chromosome haplogroup C. most likely, it is connected with the conquests of these territories, and extensive migrations of the population. Three clusters of this haplogroup, which owns 70% of the surveyed representatives of the population of Central Asia emerged, according to the “molecular clock”, in the period between 700 and 1300 ad That is, in the era of intense migration of Turks to the West, including the period of the “Mongol” conquest.
among the scientists there is no consensus about the carrier which haplogroup was Genghis Khan himself. Although seemingly this can be set since there are a lot of shipping, consider themselves direct descendants of Genghis Khan. But the fact of the matter is that they belong to several different genetic clusters. Most supporters of the hypothesis that this is one of the treasure of haplogroup C3.
To different clusters of haplogroup C3 owns a relative majority of the population of Central Asia. The greatest number of media revealed the people of Hazara living in the interior areas of Afghanistan, up to 40%. Hazaras in Afghanistan are considered to be direct descendants of the conquerors who came with Genghis Khan. It can be stated that in this case, ancient legends do not lie. 30% of carriers of this Y-chromosome among the Chinese Inner Mongolia (an Autonomous region of China), 25% – the Mongols of Inner Mongolia, 20% – among the Mongols of the Mongolian Republic, Kazakhs and Uighurs, China, about 10% among the Kazakhs of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Chinese of North China.
When the results of a study on cluster C3-М217, which showed its wide distribution in the Centreheating of Asia, was first published, it caused a wave of comments that the world is home to at least 16 million direct descendants of Genghis Khan. In fact, the mutation that formed this gene occurred long before Genghis Khan. So, if the identification of the haplogroup of Genghis Khan this haplogroup is true, then the people belonging to a given genetic cluster, are obviously descendants in common with Genghis Khan’s ancestor, but not the Genghis Khan.
meanwhile, according to another study conducted by French scientists, the birthplace of the late three genetic clusters to which belongs the majority of the population of Central Asia is Manchuria. Their speakers now reside in all the States of Central Asia, Mongolia, northeast China and Xinjiang. Hence, carriers of this genotype are many Mongolians, Kazakhs, Uighurs, Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Turkmens, a local group of Chinese (most likely, okatannye the Manchus). Identified members of these haplogroups among the Yakut, Evenki and Khakas.
But among the peoples of Russia is not enough representative sample to judge the prevalence among them of certain haplogroups. Solely for historical reasons, we can assume that the predominant carriers of the “Mongol-Tatar” from the Y chromosome (if they are properly defined) should be Buryats, Tuvinians, Kalmyks, Yakuts, Siberian Tatars… But without extensive genetic studies in Russia we cannot yet say definitely.
Genghis Khan was a… European?
the Sensational discovery was made in 2016, the South Korean and Mongolian scientists, raskatyvanie burial Tavan Tolgoi in Mongolia, where, as expected, buried the members of the clan Borjigin, which belonged to Temujin (Genghis Khan). Most of the buried amulet with the sign kind of Borjigin. Radiocarbon analysis indicated the period when he could be a burial – 1150-1250 ad That is, the time immediately preceding the conquest “the Mongol-Tatars” or the period of these conquests.
Genetic analysis of the remains revealed the identity of the people in the burial of different haplogroups of MT-DNA (maternal), which are typical for Central Asia. Skull traits are also typical of the Mongoloid race. With the Y-chromosome haplogroup of all four men were the same – R1b-М343.
Among modern humans, the highest frequency of occurrence of the clade R1b – the population of Western Europe – above 60%. Further East, its share is decreasing: in Central Europe, 30 to 60%, among Russians on the Russian plain – about 10% (including Russian spread close haplogroup R1a). In Transbaikalia it has almost none.
more surprising was the discovery. It is, according to some scholars, is in good agreement with evidence that the Genghis Khan had green eyes that clearly indicates Caucasoid admixture.
However, scientists do not yet know how to reconcile this discovery with data on the modern distribution of haplogroups. After all, according to written sources, Genghis Khan left many descendants. And if he really was a carrier of haplogroup R1, it media in Central Asia should now be a lot of things not observed.
Therefore, most likely, in an excavated ancestral tomb Borjigins were not blood relatives of Genghis Khan, and the sister of his clan. The question of what is considered “the genes of Genghis Khan”, and who of modern Nations to the greatest extent to have inherited the “blood of the Tatars”, in science remains still open.
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