History 19/03/20 Why Stalin during the war changed the national anthem of the USSR
the Onset of 1944 brought the Soviet victory in the great Patriotic war, then, in the night, on the radio for the first time the new anthem sounded, designed to support and encourage the Soviet people in the struggle against Nazi Germany. Until 1943, as the state has used the international proletarian hymn “the Internationale,” written in the XIX century by Frenchman Eugene pottier. The rejection was associated not only with the need to maintain national patriotism, but also consistent with the political considerations of Joseph Stalin.
the Great Patriotic war returned many of the attributes of the king’s time: epaulettes, medals with the names of pre-revolutionary generals (Alexander Nevsky, Suvorov, Kutuzov) and the official recognition of the Orthodox Church. However, the end use of the universal anthem of the workers logically followed from events that occurred long before June 1941. In 1924-1925 years setting Stalin developed the theory of “victory of socialism in one country”, which actually questioned the idea of world proletarian revolution, considered in the first years of the Soviet state is fundamental.
Shortly before the appearance of the hymn, in the spring of 1943, was dismissed by the Communist international (Comintern), created by the Bolsheviks to promote revolutionary sentiment throughout the world. This international organization was unnerving the allies, while the Soviet Union hoped for a speedy opening of a second front, and additional supply of arms for the American lend-lease program was not excessive.
Came to power, the Bolsheviks were initially considered the October 1917 just as the first phase of the world proletarian revolution, because, according to the theorists of communism, to build socialism in backward Russia without external support it is impossible.
Vladimir Lenin wrote that “to finish” the Soviet type of state will only practical experience of the working class of several countries.” In this regard, in 1919 in Moscow, the Bolsheviks formed the Communist international, which was to influence all the foreign socialist forces.
At that time the world revolution did not seem a utopia, as rebellious sentiment soared in several European countries: in Germany a short time there was the Bremen, and the Bavarian Soviet Republic and across the territory of Hungary for four months took power at the head of the worker-peasant-soldier Soviets.
Despite the relatively quick suppression of these revolts, the Bolsheviks did not despair, believing that “the preparatory period of the revolution in the West may continue for a very long time.” Although the use of “the Internationale” as the national anthem was not officially fixed mass distribution in the country in the end made him the main music of the Soviet Union. Written by the French Communard motive was supplemented by translated into Russian language of a text.
Socialism in one country
After Lenin’s death in 1924, between Leon Trotsky and Stalin, a struggle over the role of first violin in the Central Committee (CC) of the Bolshevik party. In 1922, the future Generalissimo of the Soviet Union has achieved control over the activities of the weakening of the “leader”, and later with the aim of strengthening the authorities began to use alliances with prominent Bolsheviks (Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin), who were later executed.
Trotsky was a great theorist of Marxism, but in pragmatism inferior to his opponent. The Stalinist theory of socialism in one country in contrast to the ideas of permanent revolution, Trotsky gave a sense of the near approach of a “bright future” regardless of external factors, and, in addition, it can be used for geopolitical purposes. If socialism is possible to build in the Soviet Union, commodity-money relations with the capitalist countries are no longer CAcalls out something shameful.
since 1924 the Comintern, which was once heavily dependent on Moscow, virtually begins to move under the full control of the Secretariat of the Central Committee. A few years after the expulsion of the opponent from the country of Stalin in 1929 the international organization began to condemn “Trotskyism”, and disagree with this position, it was simply excluded.
In the 1930s the Stalinist apparatus via the Comintern was to reduce the intensity of revolutionary fervor foreign Communists to join the world politics. Shortly thereafter, the USSR and the USA established diplomatic relations, and in 1934 the Soviets had joined the League of Nations. All this gave the possibility of obtaining foreign skills and technology necessary for industrialization.
the Rejection of the “Internationale”
In the period of mass repressions, purges affected the Comintern, which at different times were detected in a total of about hundreds of “spies”. This international organization has begun to expose the counter-revolutionary ideas “enemies of the people” is not only the Soviet Union and the Communists. By the early 1940s, the position of the Comintern on various issues finally hooked up with the vision of the geopolitical situation of the Soviet leadership.
Stalin thought about the liquidation of the organization before the start of the great Patriotic war, as the need for it has practically disappeared. In 1943 the Comintern was disbanded under the pretext of “political maturity of the Communist parties”. The creation of a new national anthem is “the Internationale” was a logical conclusion of the current Soviet line unit.
Since 1942, Soviet poets and composers have taken up this task, and in a year from a vast array of melodies and texts were chosen, the music by Alexander Alexandrov, which is used as the national anthem in our days, and the words of Sergei Mikhalkov and Gabriel El-Registan. The widespread use of the composition began in 1944.
Now, the Union becomes a state which sees itself not as the first link in the chain of proletarian revolutions, and as an independent unit, delimiting spheres of influence on a par with other world powers.
© Russian Seven
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