History 25/03/20 5 major defeats of the allies of the USSR in world war II
until the beginning of 1942, the allied forces could not do anything to oppose the Axis countries. Despite the advantages of the number of personnel and military equipment they once again suffered a painful defeat.
10 may 1940, bypassing “the line of mazhino” German troops stepped up their offensive in Belgium, and on may 14 was forced to surrender to the Dutch army. However, the region still faced the combined forces of the 1st army, consisting of 10 British, 18 French and 12 Belgian divisions.
Despite the fact that the book and weapons of the Union troops were not inferior, and according to some indices and was superior to similar German models, thanks to the coordinated and rapid action, the Wehrmacht managed to cut and squeeze to the sea an army of allies in the area of Dunkirk.
Cabinet Churchill quickly decides to evacuate the British expeditionary force to the Motherland.
the Anglo-French connection tried for some time to counterattack, but the 7th such division Erwin Rommel ruthlessly extinguished these attempts. After 28 may, the Germans surrendered the remaining part of the Belgian, and British forces unsuccessfully tried to close the gap in the defense over the allies under threat of encirclement.
the Evacuation of the British expeditionary force took place in the shortest possible time – from 26 may to 4 June. In the course of “operation Dynamo” according to the official Admiralty of great Britain were evacuated 338 226 allied troops, about a thousand of them died during transport. Having lost almost all heavy weapons, the British army still retained its personnel.
the fall of the “Maginot line”
France has tried to learn lessons from the rapid defeat of Poland and became hard to prepare a “Maginot line” to enabledWMD attack Germany. The complex of fortifications stretching over 360 miles, consisting of 39 DOS (permanent fortifications), 500 casemates, under-equipped artillery, 70 bunkers, lots of bunkers and observation posts, according to military engineers had to stop the enemy.
But hacking the French defensive redoubts were ready and the Germans. 14 June 1940 the 1st and 7th infantry of the army from the army group “C” Colonel-General Wilhelm von Leeb, with strong artillery and air support for a few hours broke through the French defense, thereby identifying vulnerable places considered impregnable line.
Many bunkers just could not withstand direct hits of artillery projectiles and aerial bombs. In addition, most of the buildings were not designed for perimeter defense and fell after the German attacks from the flanks and rear.
13 French divisions, defending the “Maginot line” could hold out until June 22, after which began to give up. However, according to historians “the Maginot line” its main purpose was fulfilled, as it has significantly limited the power and scale of the German attacks on the districts, which were strengthened. The culprit was the French command, brought up, according to the English historian, B. H. liddel HART, on the traditions of the slow pace of development of military operations.
the Battle for Tobruk
in the possession of the British Libyan port city of Tobruk was for the German troops of critical strategic importance. It is part of the “Africa corps” can promptly obtain ammunition, fuel and food.
the Operation to capture Tobruk combined German-Italian forces began in may 1942 and lasted about a month. Its successful completion is largely the result of the military genius Rommel.
with almost half the number of tanks (561 vs 900) General well-used stretch of the British tank units and supported aviation pretty quickly secured a strategic advantage before the final throw.
Tobruk, having a strong garrison, however, was not able to repel the German armored vehicles. The major General Klopper had to capitulate 48 hours after the start of fighting – on June 21, he passes the fortress Rommel. Of captured 30-strong garrison 19 thousand were British soldiers. Also in the hands of the Germans had about 2,000 vehicles, 1,400 tons of gasoline and more than 5000 tons of products. All the supply problems were solved in one fell swoop.
the Philippine operation
the Aim pursued by Japan, the Philippine operation was the defeat of the American-Filipino forces and the Asiatic fleet of the United States that would seize the important strategic value of the American colony. The main phase of the operation lasted from 8 December 1941 to 2 January 1942, though the Americans and the Filipinos still long defended the Peninsula of Bataan and fortress Corregidor.
Lost after the defeat base pearl Harbor air support of the United States Asiatic fleet did not dare to use against the Japanese landing ships, and the action of submarines in the current situation has not been effective. Thus left without air cover even a superior enemy grouping us-Philippine troops (150 million against 130 million) were vulnerable before the Japanese landing.
on 2 January When the Japanese troops entered Manila main tasks of the operation have been solved.
By June of 1942, the Japanese occupied all the Islands of the Philippine archipelago.
the Allied troops killed lost 2.5 thousand people, 5 thousand wounded, and 100 thousand were captured. Part of the blame for the defeat of the American army was assigned to General MacArthur, who has been accused of poor knowledge of the theater of operations.
the Malay operation
the Malaysian operation was carried out by Japan in the same time frame as the Philippines, but now, as the enemy were not the Americans and the British. Capturing British Malaya, Japan would receive access to a rich resource base and a convenient springboard for an attack on Australia. But the major obstacle in the way of the Japanese army was a powerful naval base in Singapore, built by the British just before conflict.
a Big mistake of the British command was the belief that Japan is not able to apply simultaneously more than one of a military strike in the Pacific.
the Underestimation of the Japanese, they are costly. Within one day, 10 December 1941, Japanese aircraft destroyed the core of the British Eastern fleet – the battleship “Prince of Wales” and battlecruiser “Repulse”. For Churchill this event was “the heaviest blow that he received during the war”.
On land, the 88-strong contingent of British-Australian troops, attacked a more modest 60-strong Japanese army also suffered defeat, were forced to retreated to the South of the Malay Peninsula. A quick defeat of the allied forces were not allowed to rush the reinforcements and by February 15 fell the last Bastion of the British defence of Singapore. The loss of British and Australian troops amounted to 5.5 thousand killed and 5 thousand wounded, and about 40 thousand prisoners.
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