History 04/03/20 “ancient Egyptian civilization”: they were used by the pharaohs

Egyptian pharaohs who built the great pyramids, they were not buried, was well known to the ancients. Curious how they explained it. So Diodorus Siculus, who lived in the 1st century BC, reported that the Pharaoh Chephren (khafra) the Egyptians hated so much in his life that he was disposed to bury himself in another place, fearing that his burial was not defiled.

But this was not all. Herodotus in the 5th century BC, claimed that the predecessor of Khafre – Khufu (Khufu) was buried in his pyramid. However, Herodotus presented in his the history of many stories that are not confirmed by archaeologists. For example, he wrote that the body of Cheops inside the tomb rests on an artificial island, which summed up the canal from the Nile. There is even a reconstruction of the pyramid complex at Giza, but no trace of such structures, archaeologists have not found.

the Traditional explanation

Research school of Egyptology, which originated in the late 18th century, when French scientists from the Suite of Napoleon Bonaparte began the study of Egyptian antiquities, created the concept of pyramids as tombs of the pharaohs. The works of John Perring, James Henry Breasted, Elliot Grafton Smith, Boris Turaev, Victor Solkin and many other scientists from around the world maintained and developed prosaic theory, is repelled from the first mention of pyramids in Herodotus.

Scientists do not mind that almost none of the pyramid not found any remains of the pharaohs, nor even graves. Those designs that are traditionally regarded by researchers as burial chambers and sarcophagi are empty. In separate pyramids are found human bones, but there is no evidence that this is the bones of the pharaohs or members of their families. Egyptologists attribute this to the fact that all the pyramids were robbed in ancient times, and the mummies of the pharaohs were extractENES and irretrievably lost. There is another option of interpretation in Diodoro: the pyramids were built for the blind and the pharaohs buried secretly in other places.

the Arguments against burial

the Pyramids were built by pharaohs of the old Kingdom and some Average. The most magnificent buildings belong to the pharaohs of the 4th dynasty. For most of the history of ancient Egypt funeral rites of the pharaohs was quite different. The pharaohs of the New Kingdom were buried in colorfully painted tombs, carved into the rocks in the valley of the Kings.

For the ancient Egyptians was generally characterized by richly decorating its burial chamber is a simulation of the earthly pleasures of life that must accompany the deceased in the afterlife. For example, buried the first of the pharaohs of the 1st dynasty in underground facilities within special structures – mastabas. It is believed that the mastaba gave rise to the pyramids. But inside of the pyramids, unlike mastabas, there are no paintings.

it is Unclear why the ancient plunderers of the pyramids would want the Royal mummies. After all, the tombs of the pharaohs of the New Kingdom also repeatedly plundered, however, the Royal body was not interested in burglars – almost all the modern collection of ancient Egyptian mummies comes from the Valley of the Kings. And even more puzzling, why the ancient gravediggers, to destroy the pyramid of Khafre and pulled out, allegedly, the body of the king, was not tempted by his beautiful diorite statue found there in the 19th century by archaeologists.

it is Sometimes argued that the pyramids could not serve the burial, and some other place is also associated with the mortuary cult of the Pharaoh. But all the passages inside the pyramid are very narrow and space is clearly not suitable for performing some rituals. In addition, all entrances to the pyramids were carefully hidden, and most of them are still not discovered. Existing entrances to the pyramids were done by unidentified robbers or late rulers of Egypt. For example, the entrance to the pyramid of Cheops was broken in the 9th century B. C. pon the orders of the Arab Caliph Abdullah Ibn mA’mun.

an Even bigger mystery is the fact that one and the same Pharaoh is sometimes more pyramids. For example, with the name of the founder of the 4th dynasty Sneferu connected as many as four (!) the pyramid at Saqqara, among them one – Pink – was the first giant pyramid of the correct form. Only in one of them found fragments of human remains, and there is no evidence that this is the bone specifically buried there Pharaoh.

the Actual difficulties of identification of the pyramids with places of burial recorded in the classic book by Jean-Philippe Lauer of the “Mysteries of the Egyptian pyramids”. Although it is based on the traditional interpretation is optimistic and explains the mysteries of the pyramids only to their lack of raccomandato collected the facts allow the reader to come to the above conclusions.

Thus, the traditional interpretation of the pyramids in the science unconvincing.

Actually, one or the other pyramid is attributed to a particular Pharaoh, on the basis of the written tradition (as the pyramid of Chephren), or being there carved the name of the Pharaoh or items with his name. However, to identify the building name of the reigning Pharaoh, it seems quite mundane. This still does not mean that this building was intended for the burial of Pharaoh or of his posthumous cult.

Alternative interpretations of the pyramids

the Problem of explaining functions of the pyramids lies in the fact that any alternative explanation is declared marginal and rejected by the community of Egyptologists. Therefore, this theme is developed mainly in the works of “alternative historians”, such as Zechariah Sitchin, Erich von d? Niken, Graham Hancock, Andrew Sklyarov Oleg nosovskiy, etc.

the Latter implies, incidentally, that such structures could serve as a rich vaults of the Treasury and has therefore attracted the attention of thieves. Therefore, access to them was so difficult. However, pseudohistorians in his book “the First wonder of the world. As for hit was built the ancient Egyptian pyramids” brings your build to the argument of the theory of the great Russian Eurasian-North American Empire in the middle Ages. But the version of the original stored in the pyramids of some of the treasures (but not the bodies of the pharaohs) may be promising. A detailed list of other exotic hypotheses about the purpose of the pyramids was given in the publication “why the pyramids were built”.

the Problem purpose of the Egyptian pyramids exist. There is another, closely related, the mystery: where were buried the pharaohs of the 4th dynasty? It is not excluded that the attention of historians still eludes you something important, some kind of universal key that would help unlock the mysteries of ancient Egypt, without resorting to exotic versions.

Yaroslav Butakov

© Russian Seven

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