History 26/02/20 Anton Makarenko: why the best teacher in the world called the “counter-revolutionary”
he was accused of fascination with pre-revolutionary pedagogy, authoritarianism, brutality and even physical abuse. His system was called “non-Soviet”, and the teacher even threatened with arrest. The founder of the Soviet school, the wife of Lenin, Nadezhda Krupskaya chastised him, saying, do not place such a policy of education in the Soviet system. And yet in 1988 Anton Makarenko was recognized by UNESCO as the greatest teacher in the world. And pedagogical principles Krupskaya, at the head of which was the service of communism, are now considered to be at least a burden of the past.
the Twenties of the last century was marked by the young Soviet power with the growth of street children. At the beginning of 20-ies, there were seven million children of whites and of the red army, left without parents, the children, lost during the evacuation and thrown on the street in the absence of the family a piece of bread.
the 30th year the number of homeless has increased to 12 million – this was due to across-the dekulakization, decossackization, the collectivization. There was a question about creating colonies of homeless children were caught, were brought to places more like prisons. Caught children considered defective and inferior, no one knew what to do with them.
In the 20-ies to anyone then unknown Director train school from Kremenchug Anton Makarenko was appointed Director of the colony at Poltava. Arriving at the place of destination, he instead saw quite a already young people who deliberately reduced the age to avoid the firing squad. And these “guys” were not going to diligently pore over books or to go order a drumbeat.
About the difficulties he faced, Makarenko writes later in his writings, foremost of which would be “Pedagogical poem”. The fact that espesornicks he managed to educate these people. Most importantly, listed later the teacher, it is a discipline that manifests itself in strict rules and rituals, self-management and staff – senior pupils who “otesevo” new, was responsible for the younger.
In the colony was dominated by complete obedience, and the principle that is earned, and got it. Encouragement for the colonists was to participate in the drama club, which is incredibly annoying Krupskaya: “the Textbook of polychromati preferred the drama club!”, – she was indignant.
In the colony in the hope of finding dirt on Makarenko frequent inspectors, one of them – Galina Salko returned from Makarenko its ardent defender. But then everything was simple: a woman without memory fell in love with a nondescript-looking teacher, and after followed him.
Makarenko was threatened with arrest: Krupskaya, who invented the Soviet school, sharply criticized it on the Congress in 1928. She accused Makarenko in the retreat from party decrees, the introduction of self-government, called it a system of “ideologically harmful”, having reclassified the discipline in the colony in “cruelty and beatings”. Do not listen to the wife of Lenin could not.
then Saved Makarenko Gorky, instead of arrest of the teacher was transferred to the colony named after Dzerzhinsky near Kharkov.
Of the eight years of its existence, the commune only the first year was maintained by the state. The rest of the time students have earned for themselves.
“…Recent years the commune …lived on self-financing… I could spend a year on 200 thousand roubles for summer Hiking, 40 thousand rubles to pay for the tickets in the Kharkiv theatres. I could buy a bus passenger car, a truck. Unless the school can purchase?” – wrote Makarenko. Or “We decide: go 500 people on the Volga to the Caucasus. For this you need 200 thousand rubles. Resolved: within a month to work half an hour extra, and the result is 200 thousand rubles. We could put the boys in cloth costumes, girls in silk and woolen dresses”.
He ne believed. Did not believe that the colony earns and that “defective” homeless can be people. Krupskaya believed that Makarenko cruelty is forcing children to work hard and also destroys all the Communist principles relating to labour and property. In her opinion, the attitude of the children must be a Communist, what Krupskaya wrote in a letter to the pioneers “, “My” and “Our””. Interestingly, the basic principles of education teachers coincide: both talked about collectivism and self-government, both put the main purpose of the teacher personal development.
Only Makarenko these principles worked for children, and Krupskaya – the builders of socialism. The teacher in pedagogy Krupskaya was assigned the role of conductor of the policy of the party, he had to instruct parents in the right direction. The student has to move hot love to the Motherland and the ability to fight for the triumph of communism. Krupskaya insisted on interesting, full, rich life for the future builders of communism, who have nothing except the Motherland. Makarenko said: “Children are not prepared to work and life, they live and work, thoughts and experience and should be treated as comrades and citizens.” Children he had a “strong owners” of their communes and schools.
Principles Krupskaya party leaders were closer. All of them were implemented in the Soviet school and still are the Foundation of the modern Russian school. To Makarenko also treated with caution until 80-ies of the last century, his “Pedagogical poem” was published with the notes and significant revisions. As it turned out, in vain.
a Thriving colony named after Dzerzhinsky haunted party leaders. Someone even wanted to use it for work for personal benefits, what Makarenko sharply opposed. His obstinacy was transferred to the NKVD Department of labor colonies. In his charge were 12 colonies, except Dzerzhinsky.
5 Sep 1936 Makarenko was invited for the evening in his native commune. He uttered the phrase that became fatal: “we All work ford the leadership of comrade Stalin. And even if Stalin makes a thousand mistakes, we should still go after him.” It is written in a sincere impulse, the phrase is interpreted as an attack on the Soviet system. It was called “counter-revolutionary”, began to denounce, wrote denunciations. In 1939 he lived in Moscow. Razvolnovalis, already being in the train Makarenko felt bad. He lay down on the bench and died. As it turned out later – from a broken heart. At the opening I saw it was torn in two.
© Russian Seven
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