History 02/03/20 As a traitor Mazepa affected the outcome of the battle of Poltava
on 27 June 1709 Russian army defeated the Swedish at Poltava. This victory is considered decisive in the great Northern war (1700-1721). Traditionally, the main merit of it attributed to Tsar Peter I. But we all know that the victory is produced soldiers and generals. In addition, Peter the Great is possessed neither military talents nor the personal courage. The true “culprits” of the Poltava battle are still in the shadows.
Mazeppa – the evil genius of Karl XII
the battle of Poltava only crowned a long military campaign 1708-1709. on the territories of Lithuania and Ukraine. It was during this campaign were the basic preconditions for the Russian victory.
In July 1708, the Swedish king Charles XII began a campaign through Lithuania (modern. Belarus) to Moscow. Won a series of victories over the Russian army and establish control over Lithuania, Carl went to Smolensk, but there was difficulty. In range distances and the supply of provisions was very difficult, and in the Swedish army showed a lack of supplies. At this point, the Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa, who led the long secret negotiations with Charles, openly cheated on Peter and suggested to the Swedes the help of the Cossack army and winter apartments, inviting them to Ukraine. Charles XII then turned South.
However, the promised aid from the Cossacks came not in such numbers as promised Mazeppa, and as I would like Carl. Ukraine was a strategic trap for the Swedish army. So we can say that the first culprit for the defeat of the Swedes became Mazepa himself, Karl provided false information.
the Hetman Ivan Skoropadsky
for his part, Peter did everything to Ukraine hated him and joined the Swedes. Immediately after the news of the treason of Mazepa, Russian troops (among which the most “distinguished” Kalmyks) under the command of the Petrova favourite Alexander Menshikov devastated the capital of getMantua the town of Baturyn, killing most of the inhabitants, and in the end betrayed the entire city with the fire still in it.
in the Spring of 1709, Russian troops began to destroy the Sich. May 14, 1709, it was destroyed. The Cossacks fled to Charles, meanwhile, besieging Poltava, but it turned out their complete unsuitability to the war in the regular ranks. The Cossacks displeased the Swedes that in panic fled at shelling. In the end, the Swedes put the Cossacks to dig trenches for the salary, but the Cossacks considered such a thing derogatory to his “lytsarstva.” The Cossacks fled from Karl. By the time most of the battle of Poltava Carl had only 2,000 Cossacks, but those he did not dare to move into the fight.
In the end, Mazepa managed to bring Karl only 7000 and 3000 Cossacks registered Cossacks. Much credit for this belongs to Ivan Skoropadsky, elected (actually appointed by Peter) Hetman in place of modified Mazeppa. Skoropadsky, despite all the excesses of Russian troops and authorities managed to keep almost half of the Cossacks, including a majority of the registered troops, and a large part of the territory of the Ukrainian Hetmanate on the side of Russia. He largely contributed to the success of Russia in the campaign. By the beginning of the battle of Poltava in the army were Peter 8,000 Ukrainian Cossacks. However, they did not participate in the battle.
the Hero of the defense of Poltava Colonel Kelin
Megamachine position, in which Charles XII in Ukraine, thoughtlessly believing the promises of Mazeppa, required him mastering some reference point. In the spring of 1709, the Swedes began a siege of Poltava. Mazeppa and then promised the Swedes surrender the city without a fight, hoping for the betrayal of the Cossack Colonel Levenets, but he in any case had been previously booted out of the command of the garrison of the city.
the Garrison of Poltava in the amount of 4,200 people was commanded by Colonel Kelin, who in different sources is called Alex, then Ivan. Obviously, he had two names, as the son oodav from Western Europe. His father, Stephan, Kaelin – was an immigrant, most likely from Sweden. He entered Russian service under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. His son went to the Crimean campaigns under Princess Sophia, was a battle of the Northern war, since Narva.
Kelin Under the command of the defenders in Poltava, Tver and Smolensk regiments recaptured two months and twenty Swedish assaults. The Swedes lost more than 6,000 people. Thus, by the time of the battle of Poltava the Swedish army was much weakened by the preceding campaign, and especially the siege of Poltava. After the victory at Poltava Kelin was promoted directly to major General.
Brigadier Alexey Golovin
Knowing about the plight of the Poltava garrison, Peter tried to help him with the lifting of the siege. These attempts were unsuccessful. However, on 15 may Brigadier Alexey Golovin was able to break through the blockade and held in Poltava fortress 900 soldiers, which greatly strengthened the garrison and enabled it to become active (Golovin himself was soon captured during one of the raids).
the Swedes concentrated on the battle of Poltava 16 thousand men (infantry and cavalry equally), Russians – 46 thousand (21 thousand of them cavalry). However, a significant part of the Russian troops did not participate in the battle. The numerical superiority of the enemy did not bother Charles XII. He repeatedly beat the Russians by less. This time he was hoping for a dash attack of his choicest infantry and instability of the Russian in combat.
during the attack the Russian redoubts of the Swedish infantry under the command of major-General Roosa and cavalry major-General of shlippenbah broke away from the main body, were surrounded and surrendered to surrender, and Koporye Tobolsk regiments under the overall command of a Russian Lieutenant-General French (apparently) origin of Samuel de Rences.
the Climax of the battle. General Golitsyn
Despite the partial failures, the overall success is clearly falling on the side of the Swedes. The Cossacks Soonadskogo even tied the negotiations with the Swedish commanders about switching to their side. Here Prince Maximilian of württemberg-Vincentelli made perhaps a fatal mistake by refusing to accept defectors without the order of the king.
a Turning point in the tide of battle was to attack neocakavana the right flank of the Russian infantry under the command of Lieutenant-General (later field Marshal) Prince Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn. The left flank of the Swedes did not expect this attack and fled. The Swedish cavalry tried to counterattack, but failed, and was fascinated by the overall flow of the flight, followed by a full Swedish army.
Thus, a crucial role in the victory at Poltava was played mainly by the bold actions of M. M. Golitsyn, and the prerequisites for it created a number of military commanders, among which the first place must be put kelina. We should not forget that Charles XII put himself in a strategic dead end, and contributed to this Mazeppa, confirming the saying “the obliging fool is worse than enemy.”
© Russian Seven
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