History 06/03/20/f 2001: a Space Dissacration against Neanderthals: the main rivalry of the stone age
it is Known that the Neanderthal dead-end branch of humanity. But they were in such a deplorable position? According to one version, could not compete with CRO-magnons, on the other, became victims of genocide.
just like people
the Modern man, who appeared about 30 thousand years ago, not so far removed from the Neanderthal. According to research by Professor Svante Paabo from Institute of evolutionary anthropology of max Planck, the human and Neanderthal is similar to the 99.5-99.9% of that at the time, could be the result of parallel development or even crossbreeding of two types.
the Neanderthal was a primitive vocal apparatus, he knew how to make fire, make tools and fabricate the skins of animals. He was familiar with the sense of community, compassion and respect for elders. Evidence discovered the skull of an elderly Neanderthal man, in the jaw which completely lacked teeth. He could survive only under the condition that someone from the family chewed the food for him.
Neanderthals rarely lived to 45 years: they were crippled by disease, the main of which was rickets and rheumatism, as well as injuries and wounds sustained in hunting or in battle with competitors. And yet this does not explain the fact that a fairly rapid disappearance of Neanderthals from the scene that spawned and continues to generate numerous hypotheses.
in the early XX century by the Czech anthropologist Ales Hrdlichka suggested that Neanderthals, at least some part of them are ancestors of modern humans. However, to evolve are only some of the population, the rest by natural selection has been supplanted by more sophisticated and adapted to living individuals. However, the absence of an anthropological forms between Homo Sapiensom and paleoanthropus led scientists to doubt the validity of this theory.
In 1997 a team of geneticists from the University of Munich, studied the remains of the first Neanderthal was found in 1856 near düsseldorf, confirmed that the sample has with the modern man a common ancestor who lived about half a million years ago. However, about 300-400 thousand years these two species began to diverge.
researchers from the University of Zurich Christoph Zollikofer and Mariia Ponce compared the skull to about two years of Neanderthal and CRO-magnon and found that the cranial bones of children were formed in completely different ways, which led to a chain of genetic mutations. However, for some time the CRO-magnons and Neanderthals lived side by side until the last 35-40 thousand years ago has not completely disappeared from the face of the Earth.
with his teeth, And spears,
it is Established that the basis of the diet of the Neanderthals were meat, mainly Buffalo and mammoth. But not only that. Some time ago the staff of the National center for scientific research in Paris under the leadership of Fernando Rozzi found in the Parking lot of the Neanderthals the bones of CRO-magnons and later near the dwellings of the CRO-magnons were discovered the skeletal remains of Neanderthals. Cannibalism was evident from the teeth marks on the bones and characteristic bone fractures.
in addition, from burials of the CRO-magnon paleontologists dug up a necklace from the teeth of Neanderthals. Scientists also assumed that the CRO-magnons in the economic needs used the skull and internal organs of the Neanderthals. In the opinion of Fernando Rozzi, the end of the century, Neanderthals were dire: the war of cannibals they lost.
according to archaeological findings, the CRO-magnons not only ate their interspecific competitors, but also exterminated them. For example, on the ninth rib of a Neanderthal man, whose remains they found in Iraq, it is possible to observe a clear footprint from a blow with a sharp weapon. Anthropologist Steven Churchill of Duke University (USA) held a semblance tokriminalisticheskom investigation and determined that “the Iraqi paleoanthro” was killed cast a light spear that was used by only the CRO-magnons. According to scientists, this is strong evidence of interracial conflict.
in the early XX century, near the Croatian village of Krapina were found bone fragments of approximately 900 ancient people, allegedly belonging to the Neanderthals and CRO-magnons. The German anthropologist Hermann Cloaca concluded that “there was a battle for the possession of the cave.”
There are less bloody version of the death of the Neanderthal race. Biologist Marcus Feldman, for example, believes that the final victory of the CRO-magnons over the Neanderthals has provided not so many weapons, how many total cultural superiority of the first, in which even a small population can displace competitors, having a numerical advantage.
But according to calculations by the British archaeologist Paul Mellars one Neanderthal in Europe accounted for at least 10 CRO-magnon, that determined the outcome of the struggle between species. Scientists say that Neanderthals without genocide just up and disappeared in the environment who had to adapt to cold Europe of migrants from the South.
From the point of view of the scientists, CRO-magnons not only destroyed the Neanderthals, but generally was not involved in their disappearance. St. Petersburg archaeologists Love Golovanova and Vladimir Doronichev think the last one has died as a result of ecological disaster long before the advent in Europe of CRO-magnon.
© Russian Seven
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