History 21/03/20 How many times Russians fought with the Chinese,
China is now considered one of our main strategic partners. However, the two great powers not always peacefully coexisted with each other. There were conflicts, sometimes with the status of local wars.
In the mid-seventeenth century, when the Russians appeared on the borders of China, the authorities in that country seized the Imperial Manchu Qing dynasty, did not recognize the accession of Russia to the Amur lands. Dynasty considered them their ancestral possessions, although this is virtually in no way involved in their management.
In 1649 began a series of so-called Qing border conflicts.
the Siege of the Burg Komarkova
One of the major Russian-Chinese clashes of that period. It was preceded by battle in the Songhua river in 1654, where about 400 Cossacks under the command of the serving person Onufriy Stepanov (the companion and successor of the famous Russian Explorer and warrior Yerofei Habarova) met the Manchu army under the command Manhandle. According to a report Stepanova, he was confronted by an army of 3,000 Chinese and Manchu, not including allied ducherow and Dauria.
Despite the obvious superiority of the enemy, the Cossacks Stepanova came out of the battle victorious. However, the surviving Manchus went ashore and entrenched themselves. Cossacks attacked them, but suffered losses, were forced to retreat down the river.
Fearing an attack, Stepanov began to restore abandoned Kolarski jail. And as it turned out, not in vain.
13 Mar 1655, the Manchu army of 10,000 soldiers besieged the Fort. His defenders successfully repulsed several attacks of vastly superior enemy. 3 APR 1655 years, the Manchus were forced to lift the siege from lack of food. Before leaving, the Manchus destroyed all the boats of the Cossacks.
the Siege Verhnekamskogo prison. One – twenty
Russia, knowing that sooner or later the conflict will armed forms, engaged in the fortification of the far Eastern borders. In the first year formal at the time of the reign of Tsar Peter the great (1682) was established in a separate Albazin Voivodeship. Its center was the town of Albazin the first Russian settlement on the Amur.
to Defend Albazin sent the Governor Alexey Tolbuzin with a detachment of serving people.
In November of 1682, the Chinese General Lantan with a small detachment of cavalry visited near Albazin, where he explained his appearance by deer hunting. The Russians and the Manchus exchanged gifts. In fact, the purpose of “hunting” was intelligence. The result Lantang made a report, which assessed the wooden fortress of Albazin as weak. The Emperor of China gave military expedition against Russia.
in the next 1683 Lantang appeared on the Amur with the advanced forces surrounded near the mouth of the Zeya river with his fleet and forced to surrender Strugi Russian troop Gregory Myl’nikov, numbering 70 persons, coming from Albazin in FORTS and huts, located on the banks of the river Zeya (tributary of the Amur).
the Russian was left without reinforcements and supplies, were forced to leave without a fight Dolanski and Saw FORTS. In Verhnezejsk jail 20 Russian Cossacks almost a year defended themselves against 400 Manchu until February 1684. And were forced to give up mainly because of extreme exhaustion from hunger.
the defense of Albazin
In the early summer of 1685, the Qing army of 5 thousand men, not counting cavalry, on the ships of the river flotilla got access towards Albazin. According to others, the Chinese army had about 15 thousand people. Among other things, the attackers had 150 guns. In Albazin at the time gathered 826 service class, industrial people and pashennyh peasants, who made up the garrison of defenders. “Professional soldiers” of them was about 450 people.
the Russian armed there was not a single gun (according to others, 3 guns). The fortress was handed to the requirement of the Manchus under the threat of death is instantabout to go with Cupid.
10 Jun Qing fleet appeared near Albazin. She managed to capture on rafts 40 of villagers, hurrying to hide behind walls. When the attackers opened gunfire, it turned out that log-building albazina, designed for protection against native arrows easily break cores. According to eyewitnesses, there were cases when one core flew through the city, punching both the North and South wall. The result is the outbreak of fires in Albazin burned grain barns and a Church with a bell tower. Were killed and wounded about 100 people.
June 16, early in the morning, the Chinese began the assault. It lasted almost the whole day. Defenders albazina fought hard, not allowing the Manchus to overcome surrounding the castle moat and the shaft and climb to the dilapidated fortifications. Only at 10 p.m. the Manchus retreated to their camp.
Lantang gave the order to prepare a new attack. The Chinese filled up the moat with wood. The Russian had run out of gunpowder, so to ward off shooting the enemy they could not. Fearing that the defenders are preparing to burn along with her, Alexey Tolbuzin turned to Lantana with the proposal to withdraw the garrison and inhabitants of Albazin in the city Nerchinsk. The Qing commanders, fearing a stubborn resistance and great sacrifices, he agreed. The Manchus believed that the Nerchinsk is also on the Manchu lands, and demanded the departure of the Russians in Yakutsk. However, Tolbuzinu was able to insist on a retreat in Nerchinsk.
Risen from the ashes of Albazin. The siege of the second
in August, 1685 Tolbuzin with 514 army of service people and 155 fishermen and peasants returned to the burned and abandoned Chinese city. By the winter of Albazin was rebuilt. The fortress was built, taking into account previous siege more thoroughly.
in the Spring of 1686 the Chinese tried to seize and restored Albazin and Nerchinsk. In July five thousand army of the enemy, with forty guns again towards Albazin. The Chinese, before destroying situahaunted village, to deprive the besieged of “replenishment” of food, was sent to Albazin some previously captured Russian prisoners with a demand to surrender. Assembled round albazintsy have taken a common decision: “United for a single, head-to-head, and ago de without of the decree does not suit”.
Active hostilities began in July 1686. At the very beginning of the siege from the Chinese core Tolbuzin was killed. the command of the Russian troops took Athanasius Baton. Thanks to the heroism and good military organization, the Russian losses were about 8 times less than that of the Chinese. In September and October of defenders albazina has managed to beat off two powerful attacks. Winter 1686/1687 years and the Chinese and Russian famine and scurvy. Defenders albazina to December there are not more than 150 people. The loss in the battle did not exceed 100 people. But more than 500 died of scurvy. The loss of Manchu exceeded 2.5 thousand people were killed and died. However, they are reinforcements. However, the Chinese did not know how much of the fortress remained of the defenders, and fearing great losses, went to negotiate, and soon lifted the siege.
Thus, the defenders albazina has lasted almost a year and, in fact, a moral victory surpasses the enemy. However, in August 1689 Albazin was abandoned by the Russians. This was the result of the signing between Moscow and Beijing Treaty of Nerchinsk, Russian-Chinese border.
Check the red Army’s strength
the Conflict on the CER can also be attributed to border crossing. The road itself and the area around it, according to the Treaty between Soviet Russia and China in 1924, was considered joint property. The road even had its own flag, “compiled” from the Chinese five-color flag on top and the Soviet red flag at the bottom. In the West, the conflict was explained by the fact that the Chinese were not satisfied that the second half of the 20-ies of CER would bring less profit, becoming unprofitable because of the position of Soviet Russia.
In the USSR the reason for the clash was due to the fact that hthe ruler of Manchuria (for which passed the CER, and which at that time was de facto independent from China) Zhang Susana egging “Western imperialists” and settled in the border of the Chinese-Manchu cities, the white Russians, eager to test how strong the Red Army.
Traditionally, the Russian-Chinese conflict army “of China” were much more numerous. The Manchus put the struggle with Soviet Russia more than 300 thousand soldiers. While our part in hostilities participated only 16 thousand troops. However, they were better armed. In particular, the Soviet side was actively used airplanes. They contributed to the success of the offensive Patterns.
In an air RAID on 12 October 1929, 5 of the 11 Chinese ships have been destroyed and the rest retreated upstream. Then with ships far Eastern flotilla landing was. With the support of artillery, the red army captured the Chinese city to Lasusu. Moreover, the tactics of the Soviet forces was that after defeating the enemy, they soon retreated into Soviet territory. So it was in the ensuing 30 Oct Puginsky operation. At the mouth of the Songhua river 8 ships of the far Eastern flotilla with troops finished off that were around the ships of the Chinese fleet Patterns, then two regiments of the 2nd infantry division occupied the city of Fujin (Fuggin), which was held prior to the November 2, 1929, and then returned to Soviet territory.
which Lasted until 19 November, the military action convinced the enemy into moral and military-technical superiority of the Soviet troops. According to some estimates, the Chinese during the fighting, has lost about 2 thousand people dead and more than 8 thousand wounded. While the red Army’s losses amounted to 281.
it is Characteristic that the Soviet side had shown great humanity to the prisoners and engaged them in ideological work, urging that “Russian and Chinese – brothers forever”. As a result, Bothousands of prisoners of war Lee was asked to leave them in the USSR.
the Manchurian side, quickly sued for peace, and on 22 December 1929 was signed the agreement under which the CER continued to be operated jointly by the USSR and China on the same terms.
the Conflict on Damanski. On the verge of a great war
In a series of Russian-Chinese clashes, it was not the largest, but perhaps the most significant in geopolitical and historical consequences. Never before has two major world powers were not so close to full-scale war, whose consequences could be catastrophic for both sides. In the battles for damanskii killed 58 of the Soviet border guards and, according to various estimates, from 500 to 3,000 Chinese soldiers (this information is the Chinese side still kept secret). However, as has often happened in Russian history that have managed to maintain by force of arms, was passed by the diplomats. Already in the fall of 1969, negotiations were held, in which it was agreed that Chinese and Soviet border guards will remain on the banks of the Ussuri river, on Damansky comfort. In fact, this meant the transfer of the Islands to China. Legally, the island passed the PRC in 1991.
the Fights near lake Zhalanashkol
a few months Later, after the Sino-Soviet conflict, the Chinese again (latest at the moment) tried by force of arms to check the “Northern neighbor” to the test. 13 Aug 1969 at 5.30 am for a total of about 150 Chinese troops invaded Soviet territory in the area of the Kazakh lake Zhalanashkol.
the Soviet border guards until the last moment tried to avoid hostilities and to enter into negotiations. The Chinese did not respond. They took up defensive positions on the hill of the Stone and began to dig. Border outposts “Spring” and “Zhalanashkol” supported by 5 armored personnel carriers attacked the hill. After a few hours the height was repulsed. On the Soviet side killed 2 guards. The Chinese lost 19 people.
Less than a month after this conflict, September 11, 1969 in Nequine Alexei Kosygin and Zhou Enlai agreed on measures to end the clashes on the Russian-Chinese border. Since then, the tension in the relations between our countries began to decline.
At the moment the length of the Russian-Chinese border is 4209,3 kilometers, there are land border and river, but no sea.
© Russian Seven
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