History 26/03/20 in the USSR deported the scientists of the Third Reich
In may 1945, Nazi Germany was defeated. But after it was a huge scientific and technical potential that has interested the victorious powers in the first place, the USSR and the USA. 22 October 1946 began the operation of the mass exportation of German scientists, engineers and workers in the Soviet Union.
in February 1945 in the Crimea took place the meeting of Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill where in anticipation of the end of the war, adopted the following decision: “to Remove or destroy all German military equipment, eliminate or take control of all German industry that could be used for military production”.
the decision of the Council of Ministers of 17 April 1946, the Soviet-German aviation design Bureau was ordered to deliver over a thousand German specialists in aviation on a specially prepared enterprise, located in the heart of Moscow, Leningrad, Kuibyshev, Kazan, Kiev, Kharkov and other cities.
the Total number of deportees from Germany specialists and workers was about 2200 people. Among them were the engineers in the field of missile and nuclear technology, electronics, optics, radio engineering, and chemistry. As with the Germans were taken and their families, the total number of deportees was to be 6-7 thousand people.
meanwhile, in 1946, the Soviet Union, France, Britain and the United States signed a document on mutual control over scientific research in Germany, under which all military research organizations were ordered to disband, and military installations – to destroy or to take out. Was also banned for applied research work in some areas, in particular, that concerned the rocket and pulsating engines and gas turbines. It was the poetWMD was decided to conduct classified work is not in the territory of Germany, divided into occupation zones, and in the Russian hinterland.
the operation was entrusted to Beria’s Deputy, I. A. Serov. He instructed the heads of organizations in Germany to prepare lists of the most useful for the USSR of specialists, primarily engineers and scientists. Some of them were in camps for prisoners of war. They were taken to the USSR by force, without informing about it in advance, lest they tried to escape. The action was attended by 2,500 employees of the counterintelligence Department of the group of Soviet occupation troops and soldiers engaged in the collection property.
Early on the morning of 22 October to the houses where the Germans lived, which was about to be deported, drove army trucks. The counterintelligence were read the deportation order, then people were given a short time to get ready, and they boarded the train – trains special purpose was already waiting at stations.
in addition to the people from Germany also delivered prototypes of aircraft engines and equipment of the former German aviation design Bureau. The dismantling of these enterprises and the export of the equipment lasted until February 1947.
with respect to the arrivals of the Germans was extended a special Directive of the Ministry of interior. They continued to be regarded as nationals of Germany, living in the Soviet Union, having a residence permit marked “until further notice”. They were not allowed to leave the territory of the settlements that housed their businesses. Was organized by the special commandant’s office to monitor mode.
Some experts were almost in a “resort” conditions. So, at the disposal of German physicists has provided the Abkhazian sanatorium “Sinop” and “Agudzera”. The first was called “the object “A”, the second “object “G”. At these facilities worked outstanding scientists: Nikolaus Riehl, who later received the title of Hero of Socialist Labor; Max Folmer, who built the first Soviet plant for the production of heavy water, and later headed the Academy of Sciences of the GDR; Peter Thiessen, who previously was an Advisor to Hitler on science; Max Steinbeck designed a centrifuge to separate uranium.
so What did the Germans in Soviet enterprises? For example, OKB-1 built a bomber “150” wing with normal sweep. OKB-2 led preparing to test an experimental rocket plane “Siebel-346”. OKB-3 was engaged in the creation of an automatic control system for cruise missiles “1БХ”.
Only in 1950 of the Germans were allowed to return back to Germany. How many German experts in the end went home, and how many remained in the Soviet Union, there is no accurate data.
© Russian Seven
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