Standing on the Ugra: how women helped to relieve the Mongol-Tatar yoke

History 08/03/20 standing on the Ugra: how women helped to relieve the Mongol-Tatar yoke

in the Late autumn of 1480 and ended with the Great standing on the Ugra. It is believed that after this Russia became the Mongol-Tatar yoke.

the Insult

the Conflict of the Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan III, Khan of the Great Horde Akhmat arose, according to one version, for non-payment of tribute. But some historians believe that Ahmad received a tribute, but went to Moscow because I missed the personal presence of Ivan III, which was to get a shortcut to a great reign. Thus the Prince did not recognize the authority and power of the Khan.

Particularly had to insult Ahmad that when he was sent to Moscow of the ambassadors to ask for tribute and dues over the past years, the Grand Duke once again did not show proper respect. In “Kazan history” is even written so: “the Grand Duke is not afraid… taking Basma, spat, broke, threw down and trampled with their feet.” Of course, this behavior of the Grand Duke is hard to imagine, but the refusal to recognize the authority of Ahmad followed.

Confirmation of pride Khan has in another episode. On “Ugorschine” Achmat, who was not in the best strategic position, demanded that Ivan III himself came to the Horde a bet and became the stapes of the Lord, waiting for the decision.


But Ivan cared about his family. His wife the people disliked. Panicky by the Prince in the first place saves wife: “the Grand Duchess Sophia (the Roman, as expressed by the chroniclers), John sent together with the Treasury Beloozero, giving a mandate to go further to the sea and the ocean, if Khan goes oku,” wrote historian Sergei Solovyov. However, her return from Beloozero people are not happy: “the great Princess Sophia ran from the Tatars in Beloozero, and did not drive one, too.”

Brothers, Andrew Galitsky and Boris of Volotsk, mutinied, demanding to divide the inheritance of a deceased brother, Prince George. Only when this conflict was ulawives, not without the help of his mother, Ivan III was able to continue the fight against the Horde. In General, “women’s participation” in the great standing on the Ugra. If you believe Tatischev, that Sophia persuaded Ivan III to make a historic decision. Victory in Standing also attributed to the intercession of the virgin.

by the Way, the size of the required tribute was a relatively low – 140 000 Altyn. Khan Tokhtamysh a century before it was collected with the Vladimir Principality around almost 20 times more.

Not saved and when planning your defence. Ivan gave the order to burn the suburbs. Residents were moved inside the walls.

There is a version that the Prince simply paid off Khan after Standing: one part of the money paid on the Ugra, the second – after the retreat. Behind Oka Andrew Younger, brother of Ivan III, did not attack the Tartars, and gave the “exit”.


Grand Duke from taking action he refused. Subsequently, the descendants approved of his defensive position. But some of his contemporaries had a different opinion.

At the news of the approach of Ahmad, he panicked. The people, according to the chronicle, blamed the Prince that he puts everyone else in danger with your indecision. Fearing assassination attempts, Ivan moved to Red village. His successor, Ivan the Young was at this time in the army, ignoring requests and letters of his father with the requirement to leave the army.

Grand Duke went all the same towards the eel in early October, but before the main force got. In Kremenets, he waited reconciled with him brothers. And at this time the eel was fighting.

Why not help the Polish king?

the Main ally of Ahmad Khan, the great Lithuanian Prince and Polish king Casimir IV , the aid never came. The question arises: why?

Some write that the king was concerned about Magli attack of the Crimean Khan Giray. Others point to internal usabiity in the land of Lithuania – “a conspiracy of princes”. “Russian elements”, dissatisfied with the king, sought support from Moscow, wanted reunification with the Russian principalities. There is an opinion that the king did not want conflektov with Russia. The Crimean Khan was not afraid of him: the Ambassador from mid-October led Lithuanian negotiations.

And freezing, Ahmad Khan, waiting for frost, not reinforcements, he wrote to Ivan III: “And if ninica from the shore poshol because I have people without clothes, and horses without blankets. A blow heart of winter ninety days, and AZ again, you will, and to drink, I water muddy”.
a Proud but careless Achmat returned to the steppe with their plunder, ravaged the lands of the former ally, and was left to winter at the mouth of the Donets. There Siberian Khan Iwaki three months after “Ugorschiny” singlehandedly killed the enemy in the dream. In Moscow, was sent Ambassador to announce the death of the last ruler of the Great Horde. Historian Sergei Soloviev writes about it so: “the Last of Grozny for Moscow, the Khan of the Golden Horde died from one of the descendants Chingishana; he has left sons who are destined to die from the Tatar weapons.”

Perhaps the descendants still remained: Anna Gorenko considered Akhmad his ancestor on the maternal side and becoming a poet, took the alias Akhmatova.

the debate about the place and time

Historians argue about where on the Ugra was Standing. Called the area under the Opaque mound, and the village of Gorodets, and the confluence of the Ugra with Oka. “To the mouth of the Ugra along her right, “Lithuanian” banks dragged on the overland road from Vyazma, which was expected Lithuanian assistance and which Horde could use for maneuvers. Even in the middle of XIX century the Russian General staff recommended that this road for the movement of troops from Vyazma to Kaluga”, – writes the historian Vadim Kargali.
unaware of the exact date of the arrival of Ahumata in Ugra. Books and records agree on one thing: it happened not earlier than the beginning of October. Vladimir chronicle, for example, down to the hour: “come on Ugra October 8 day a week, 1 hour a day”. In Vologda-Perm chronicle is written, “out of the king poshol from Ugric peoples on Thursday, the eve Mikhailov days” (November 7).

© Russian Seven

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