The son of Ivan the terrible: why Russia began turmoil

History 21/03/20 the Death of his son Ivan the terrible: why Russia began turmoil

In October 1582, Ivan the terrible was born son Dmitry, who had become the share of the last offspring (the male line) Royal dynasty of Rurik. According to the accepted historiography, Dmitry lived for eight years, but his name is 22 years old has become a curse in the Russian government.

the Russian people Have often the feeling that the homeland is under some spell. “All of us are not like normal people.” At the turn of XVI-XVII centuries in Russia were sure that you know the root of all evil – the reason was the curse of the innocent victims of Tsarevich Dmitry.

the Alarm bell from Uglich

For Tsarevich Dmitry, the youngest son of Ivan the terrible (from the last marriage with Maria Nagaya, which, incidentally, was never recognized by the Church) it ended on 25 may 1591 in Uglich, where he is in the status of the local Prince of Uglich, was in honourable exile. In the afternoon Dmitry Ivanovich metal knives with other children who were in his retinue. The materials of the investigation into the death of Dmitry is the testimony of one boy who played together with Prince: “…played de the Prince a poke with a knife with them in the backyard, and came to his illness – epilepsy illness – and snatched the knife.” In fact, these readings became the main argument for the investigators to classify the death of Dmitry Ivanovich like an accident. However, the inhabitants of Uglich, the arguments of the investigation is unlikely to be convinced. Russian people have always trusted the signs, rather than the logical conclusions of the “people”. But the sign was… And how! Almost immediately after the heart youngest son of Ivan the terrible stopped on the Uglich spread the alarm. The bell rang a local Saviour Cathedral. And all anything, but the bell rang by itself – without a ringer. About it legend has it that the Uglich people for generations believed to be true and fatal sign. When Wpeople learned of the death of the heir, the revolt began. The Uglich people defeated the Mandative log hut, killed the sovereign clerk with a family and several other suspects. Boris Godunov actually ruled the state under the nominal reign of Fedor Ioannovich, was hastily sent to Uglich Musketeers suppress the rebellion. Got not only the rebels but also the bell: it broke from the bell tower, pulled out a “tongue” cut off “ear” and publicly in the main square was punished with 12 strokes of whipping. And then, along with other rebels were sent into exile to Tobolsk. Then the Tobolsk Governor, Prince Lobanov-Rostovsky told to lock kornouh bell in mandative hut, having on it the inscription “perversely with inanimate Uglich”. However, the massacre of the bell did not save the power of the curse – it was just beginning.

the End of the Rurik dynasty

After news of the death of the Prince went to the Russian Land, people spread rumors that hand to the “accident” made the boyar Boris Godunov. But there were brave men who were suspected of “conspiracy”, and the then king of Fyodor Ivanovich, half-elder brother of the deceased Prince. And there were reasons for this.

40 days after the death of Ivan the terrible, Fyodor, the heir of the Moscow throne, was actively preparing for his coronation. On his orders a week before the coronation of the widow-Queen Mary and her son Dmitry Ivanovich was sent to Uglich – “to reign.” That last wife of Tsar Ivan IV and Prince was not invited to the coronation, was a terrible humiliation for the latter. However, Fedor did not stop: for example, the contents of the yard the Prince declined, sometimes several times during the year. After only a few months since the beginning of his reign, he gives the order to the clergy to remove the traditional mention of the name of Tsarevich Dmitry for worship. The formal reason was the fact that Dmitry Ivanovich was born in the sixth marriage and Church rules was considered illegitimate. However, everyone understood that this only reason. Zappet is the reference for worship the Prince his court perceived as a wish for death. The people there were rumors about a failed assassination of Dmitri. So, the British Fletcher, being in Moscow in 1588-1589 he recorded that the poison intended for Dmitry, died of his nurse.

six months after the death of Dmitry’s wife of Tsar Fedor Ivanovich, Irina Godunov, became pregnant. Everyone was waiting for heir to the throne. And, according to legend, the birth of a boy predicted numerous court magicians, medicine men and healers. But in may 1592, the Queen gave birth to a girl. The people walking rumors that the Princess of Theodosius, the so-called daughter of parents who were born exactly a year after the death of Dmitry – 25 may, and the Royal family for almost a month detained an official announcement. But it was not the worst sign, a girl lived only a few months, and died in the same year. And here were talking about the curse of Dmitry. After the death of the daughters the king had changed; he finally lost interest in his Royal duties, and months spent in the monasteries. People said that Fedor atone for his guilt before the murdered Tsarevich. In the winter of 1598 Fyodor Ivanovich died without leaving an heir. With him died the dynasty of Rurik.

the Great Famine

the death of the last Tsar of the Rurik dynasty opened the way to the Kingdom Boris Godunov, who was virtually ruler of the country even when you live Fedor Ioannovich. By the time of dwelling among the people the reputation of “the murderer of Prince”, however, is not much troubled him. Through cunning manipulation, he still was elected king, and almost immediately began reforms. In two short years, he conducted reforms in the country more than the previous kings in the whole of the sixteenth century. And when Godunov already seemed to have gained the people’s love, came the disaster of unprecedented climatic disasters in Russia came a Great famine that lasted for three years. The historian Karamzin wrote that people “like cattle grazing and feeding on her; the dead were found in RThave hay. Horse meat seemed to treat eating dogs, cats, bitch all uncleanness. People became worse than animals: they have left family and wives not to share with them the latest piece. Not only robbed, killed for a loaf of bread, but ate each other… human flesh was sold in pies in the markets! Mother gnawing on the bodies of their babies!..” In Moscow alone died of hunger more than 120 000 people across the country wielded the numerous gangs of robbers. It was born from people’s love toward the king is not gone – the people again talked about the curse of Tsarevich Dmitry and about the “cursed Boriska”.

the End of the dynasty of the Godunovs

1604 year finally brought a good harvest. It seemed that trouble was over. It was the calm before the storm – in the autumn of 1604 Godunov was told that from Poland to Moscow is moving troops of Prince Dmitry, who had miraculously escaped from the hands of murderers Godunov in the distant Uglich in 1591. “Robocar” as he called Boris Godunov, the people probably realized that the curse Dmitry now embodied in the impostor. However, Tsar Boris was not destined to meet face to face with the Ocean: he died suddenly in April 1605, a few months before the triumphal entry into Moscow “Dmitry survivors”. There were rumors that the desperate “damn the king” himself – poisoned. But the curse of Dmitry spread to become the king of Godunov’s son Fyodor, who was strangled along with his mother shortly before the entry of false Dmitry in the Kremlin. Said it was one of the main conditions of the “Prince” for a triumphant return to the capital.

End of national trust

Until now, historians argue, was “the king is not real”. However, perhaps we about it never learn. Now we can only talk about the fact that Dmitry did not manage to revive Rurik. And again fatal was the end of spring: may 27 boyars led by Basil Shuisky arranged an ingenious plot, in which was killed the false Dmitry. People declared that the king, towow they until recently worshipped, is an impostor, and made a public post-mortem desecration. This absurd moment was undermined popular confidence in the authorities. Ordinary people did not believe the nobles and bitterly wept for Dimitri. Shortly after the murder of the pretender, at the beginning of the summer, struck a terrible cold, which destroyed all the crops. Moscow spread the rumor about the curse that the nobles brought down on Russian soil, killing the legitimate sovereign. The cemetery at Serpukhov gates of the capital, which was buried impostor, became a place of pilgrimage many Muscovites. There are many testimonies about the “phenomena” of the risen king in different parts of Moscow, and some even claimed to have received his blessing. Frightened of popular unrest and of a new cult of the Martyr, the authorities dug up the corpse of “thief”, loaded his ashes in a cannon and fired in the direction of Poland. The wife of the false Dmitry, Marina mniszech, recalled when her husband’s body was dragged through the Kremlin gate, the wind blew the gate shields, and sound, in the same order I installed them in the middle of the road.

the End of the fountain

the New king was Vasily shuyskiy – the man who, in 1598, entered the investigation into the death of Tsarevich Dmitry in Uglich. The man who concluded that the death of Dmitry Ivanovich, was an accident, putting an end to False and received the Royal power, suddenly admitted that the investigation in Uglich there was evidence of violent death of the Tsarevich and direct involvement in the murder of Boris Godunov. In saying this, but killing two birds with one stone: discredited – even dead – his personal enemies of Godunov, and at the same time argued that the false Dmitry, who was killed during the conspiracy, was an impostor. Last shuiski even decided to back up with the help of canonization of tsarevitch Dmitry. In Uglich was sent a special Commission headed by Metropolitan Filaret of Rostov, which opened the grave of the Prince and allegedly found in the coffin of the incorruptible body of a child, which gave off a fragrance. The relics were solemnly brought to the Cathedral of the Archangel ToRamla: Moscow spread the rumor that the remains of the boy’s miraculous, and the people went to sacred Dmitry, for healing. However, the cult did not last long: there were a few cases of death from touching the relics. In the capital, rumors of bogus relics and the curse of Dmitry. The remains of cancer had out of sight to clean the reliquary. And very soon in Russia there are still a few Dmitriev of Ioannovicha and dynasty Shuisky, Suzdal branch of the Rurik, which for two centuries was the main rival branches Danilovich for the throne, broke on the first king. Basil ended his life in the Polish captivity: in the country side which on his orders once shot the ashes of false Dmitry I.

the final curse

the Turmoil in Russia ended only in 1613 with the establishment of the new Romanov dynasty. But dried up along with this curse of Dmitry? 300 year history of the dynasty suggests otherwise. Patriarch Filaret (in the world Fedor Nikitich Romanov), the father of the first “Romanov” Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, was in the middle of “passion for Dmitry”. In 1605, he concluded Boris Godunov in the monastery, was released as a “relative” false Dmitry I. After the reign of Shuya precisely Filaret brought “relics” Prince of Uglich to Moscow and propagated the cult of St. Demetrius of Uglich, in order to feed Shuisky to convince that once saved his false Dmitry was an impostor. And then, standing in opposition to Tsar Vasily, was “named Patriarch” in the Tushino camp of false Dmitry II.

Filaret can be considered the first Romanov: Tsar Michael, he bore the title of “Great sovereign” and were actually the head of state. The Kingdom of the Romanovs began with Turmoil and Turmoil is over. The second time in the history of Russian Royal dynasty was interrupted by the murder of the Prince. Legend has it that Paul I closed the casket for a hundred years the prophecy of the elder Abel concerning the fate of the dynasty. It is possible that there appeared the name of Dmitry Ivanovich….

Sergei Blinkov

Russian Seven

© Russian Seven

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