20/03/20 more Than the Soviet cosmonauts were surprised to see American astronauts
“How about this, Elon Musk” – today is not just a popular meme, and probably a favorite expression of the head of Roscosmos, Dmitry Rogozin, but in some way the motto of the Russian cosmonauts. From the beginning of the space race they never ceased to amaze us astronauts: first approach to flight training, and his equipment, then when joint operations become the norm, the habits and cultural characteristics.
the Differences are visible at once
Wanting to show the difference between domestic and American “space” approach, many often recall a beautiful story about how NASA spent millions of dollars to create writing in a zero gravity pen, while the Soviet designers simply gave up their pioneering pencils. In fact, everything was different: funded research not administration of the state and a private firm, and money for development was spent not so much. In addition, the Americans at the first stage themselves used pencils, but graphite only, impractical for spacecraft and really expensive (about $ 130 apiece), and our astronauts quickly moved on to wax crayons.
Plus, the Union subsequently purchased the “anti-gravity handle” and cartridges to them. But this principle does not change the moral of the story, if you approach it not from the point of view of ridicule, but from the point of view of the situation. But its essence is simple: if the Americans hoped to conquer space is primarily due to its technology, even expensive, Russians – mainly due to the ingenuity and personal qualities. And the confrontation between the pencil and pens are not the only example.
the Difference, in particular, felt even in the process of training the first astronauts and cosmonauts. Military engineer, member of the Center of cosmonaut training. Yuri Gagarin Vasily Lesnikov in his books is characterized by the presencel, which in the USSR in the detachment of the conquerors of the Universe it was possible to get fully fit pilots with a touch of only 200-400 hours, whereas in the US it required at least 1,500 hours of flying time.
the Difference was due to the fact that American ships were originally developed for professional pilots on an aircraft to be convenient to manage. In the Soviet apparatus of control was created under the designers, who themselves, perhaps, were not averse to get into space. For example, instead of the usual pilots control stick, which he kept in case of need two hands, was offered the arm of the rheostat type, which was to grasp only three fingers, just like for an engineer in the research laboratory.
“But the main thing. To control the spacecraft manually is permitted only in emergency situation when failure of the automation. The rest of the time sit, watch, analyze, assume, think and wait… from liftoff to landing,” said Foresters. In the end, during the 1960s he was selected in the Soviet squad of pioneers on the planes themselves don’t fly. The astronauts also constantly maintain their skills.
in addition to the first cosmonauts were prepared, that is, short course: gave lectures on space technology and navigation, acquainted with the vehicle, training simulator was given the ability to “twist the knobs”. And that’s all. But the astronauts immediately began practicing on the simulator, almost completely mimics the control system “mercury”. Models were made for two, but in Star city simulator under the “East” appeared only in the summer of 1961 after the flight of Yuri Gagarin.
in Parallel, the Americans are actively preparing for weightlessness. Including the centrifuge, flying laboratories and in the hydropool. We, in the cosmonaut training Center, a private centrifuge was built in 1973 (before that training was conducted on the trophy), a water tank appeared only in 1980. Weightlessness also Soviet pilots in the first were preparing with the help of flights in the second cockpit of a fighter, as a whole, gave them a huge load, probably checking capabilities of the body.
According to Lesnikova, all these circumstances say only that in the first years of the purposeful training of cosmonauts of the USSR did not exist. Was only the third stage of selection for the flight, in which the doctors went on to test candidates.
“Refused training for a space flight was not. But was not the normal preparation for flight. It was solid waiting for the next start date and maintain good physical standards to the extent possible,” adds the engineer.
But if this is surprising to him, Americans are just shocked. It is worth saying that the U.S. was unconditionally confident in their technical superiority. However, this confidence is seriously shaken after the first launches of Soviet spacecraft, not to mention the flight of Gagarin. Even in the Pentagon, wrote the engineer Stanislav Zigunenko, seriously discussed the project of the “closed skies”, i.e. to launch tons of metal that no ship could fly. Fortunately, this idea decided to refuse.
the Difference in mentality
of Course, over time, the difference in the training of astronauts and cosmonauts has leveled off. Besides, in the future to fly began to attract not only pilots, but also specialists from other fields – depending on tasks. One thing remained unchanged: the development of the United States spent far more than they could afford of the USSR. And even with the craftsmen in no way inferior to American counterparts.
Base obtained then is still in use. For example, recently a cargo ship “Progress MS-11”, modernized but fundamentally all the same-Soviet, reached the International space station for 3.5 hours, what struck astronaut nick Hague.
There is the American conquerors of the Universe and other reasons to be surprised. Moreover, in circumstances when their interaction with the Russian tosonatae within the same missions on the ISS is getting tighter, it moves from technology to culture.
a Couple of years ago Esquire magazine published a recording of the astronauts ‘ personal diaries. In them you can find a lot of interesting. So, they complain that the Russians get them to unskilled work – for example, to change filters and cleaned air vents. It turns out that the Russian cosmonauts talk a lot, but in the case with control center, with love to talk in a raised voice. At the same time the orders of the administration they perform without complaint, but with the leadership of NASA are not going to touch. Probably because in management for residents of the ISS have developed a system of processing produced by the body fluids in the water. The Russian crew to drink what once was urine, refuses, preferring to extract fluid from the exhaled breath condensate. And this gives the Americans total lack of understanding: because water discharge is no different from the usual and even cleaner than what originally came in person.
Peace, labor, space
however, none of the astronauts, these differences do not cause negative emotions. They are recognized in brotherly love to his Russian colleagues are jealous that they have ice cream and I want to add to your diet pearl barley.
Even more, they admire the country in which the astronauts live. For example, recently went to the ISS American Andrew Morgan believes that one of the coolest space museums-monuments is the Memorial Museum of cosmonautics in the Russian capital. And astronaut Daniel Burbank wants to drive across Russia by the TRANS-Siberian railway. And notes that Russians have a deep sense of culture and history, which they can be proud of. And combines them with the Americans, the belief that space discoveries – the most important thing humanity can do in this world.
© Russian Seven
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