History 17/03/20 gctc.Hipocampo astronaut Gagarin became known as a cosmonaut in 1960
In the late nineteenth century civilization has reached the level at which the flights in the space of abstract fantasy have become the subject of scientific theory. And, as often happens, the first road to the new paved by science fiction writers. The novels of Jules Verne, “From guns to the moon” (1865) and “Around the moon” (1870) contained the first scientific description of possible space travel.
the Astronaut in the science fiction
Since then, the science and fiction are closely walked hand in hand in the justification of the technical capabilities of space flight. In this literature belonged to primary importance as part of the promotion of these ideas and introduction into public consciousness of new terms of the future of the space age. Fiction before the science has prepared the minds of mankind to conquest space.
science Fiction writers dreamed of (and now it still remains a dream) about the time when the flotilla of space ships (also a literary term) will surf the Universe. How to name those professionals who will manage them? Already in 1880, in fantastic literature appears the term “astronaut” – literally, “sozdateli” (aeronauts – aeronauts – appeared in the late XVIII century). Its Creator think of the English writer Percy Greg.
ensuing since half a century the word “astronaut” came in fantastic literature in many languages. But in the 1930-ies there is an alternative to him.
the Invention of cosmonautics
In 1933, the native village of Seraji under Lodz, a graduate of the Sorbonne Ari Sternfeld presented at the University of Warsaw monograph “Introduction to Astronautics”, where are summarized all the then existing science questions of the theory of space flight. Interestingly, from 1930 Sternfeld corresponded with Tsiolkovsky. Although Tsiolkovsky did not use the word “space”, but it is possible that the philosophy of cosmism, Tsiolkovsky which wouldl close, somehow influenced the invention of this term by Sternfeld.
of Course, the word “space” is much more accurately expresses the essence of the concept. After all, swimming is only in some environment (aquanautics, Aeronautics). Space is also the medium, and the stars are separate objects, environments are not. However, a new word had a long time to fight their way to recognition. He Sternfeld received for his work in 1934, an International prize for Astronautical – it was already common scientific term in the West.
the Further spread of the words “space”, “spaceman” is closely linked with writing activities Ari of Sternfeld, with the popularization of them space missions. In 1935, Sternfeld wife moved to the Soviet Union, where in 1937 published a translation of his monograph on Russian language.
the Romanticism era of the space race
After the Second world war in the world, primarily in the United States and the Soviet Union, a growing interest in the subject of space travel that is associated with the development of the two powers of missile weapons. It is clear that the creation of weapons of mass destruction do not warm up the enthusiasm. Therefore, it is the romantic dream of overcoming the force of gravity served as a guiding light for space rocket designers Wernher von Braun and Sergei Korolev, as well as for those who followed in their footsteps.
In the United States and the Soviet Union came the book, which popularized the idea of space expansion. In the US, a great furor publication in the magazine “Collier’s” 1952 year of the project lunar mission von Braun in a simple presentation. A reference book for many Soviet schoolchildren was the “discovery of the world” Boris Lyapunov (1954). In the same year the magazine “Knowledge—Force” (No. 11) placed futurological essay in the form of a report on the first Soviet expedition to the moon, which, according to the forecast of the authors, was to be held in 1974. The impression of this publication was so strong that many read initially did not pay attention to the date and believed that the flight is took place.
the thronging Astronaut astronaut
In this public setting to the ideas of Sternfeld there was interest. In 1956, out of print, he published his book “satellites”. After the launch next year of the first Soviet satellite, on the book of Sternfeld drew attention abroad. In the US, where everyone was in shock from the victory of the Russians in the space race, the publishing house of the air force translated into English and published a large edition of this book. The same interest was manifested for the next book of Sternfeld “From artificial satellites to interplanetary flight” (1957).
In the Russian language through this book it was argued, the terms “astronaut” and “space”. However, not all they were once perceived to cheer. Well-known popularizer of physics Yakov Perelman accused Sternfeld in “unnecessary words”. Why invent new terms when there is already a well-established concept of “astronaut”, “Astronautics”?..
“the selection of astronauts…”
When in 1959 the air force of the USSR issued a decree on the recruitment of test pilot for the first space flights, it was written: “to Make the selection of astronauts.” More than a year that the word appeared in the official papers. Gagarin, Titov and their associates was initially listed as “pilot-astronauts”. However, the popularity of alternative of the term was such that in November 1960, they were renamed the “cosmonauts”.
Obviously, the final adoption of the name “cosmonaut” in the Soviet Union was due to two circumstances. The first is the underlying desire and in a quality manner to oppose to the bourgeois West. Why make it a term if there is a “your” (although actually, also Greek) equivalent? The second is traditionally of great importance, a striking example of Space substance in the Russian science and especially the philosophy of the twentieth century. All this contributed to the fact that the word “cosmonaut” were organically assimilated the interested public before it was adopted by the government for official designation the new profession.
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