With which the peoples of the Russian fought to the Volga became a part of Russia

History 07/03/20 With which the peoples of the Russian fought to the Volga became part of the Russian

Until the second half of the XVI century Volga flowed through the territories of several States, where lived various peoples. And only in 1556, all of it – from source to mouth – entered the Russian state.

From Seliger to Oka

In the Upper Volga basin, where populated Baltic, where the Finnish tribes, the first Slavs came from the Western Dvina and the Neva river in the VI-VII centuries the Dominant population in the era of the old Russian state in IX-X centuries. here was the non-Slavic peoples. Their tribal centres is not located on the Volga, and at some distance from it. The capital of Mary was on the lake Nero (Rostov the Great current), and ves – at White lake. The first major Russian city on the Volga, Yaroslavl was built according to the legend Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich, when he was Prince of Rostov, in the late tenth or the early eleventh century.

the bulk of the deposited in the basin of the Upper Volga of the Slavic population settled in the fertile “apalach” around Suzdal and the new city of Vladimir. Efforts in the late XII century, Vladimir-Suzdal Principality took control of the Volga to where it became Eye. Here in 1221 was laid Nizhny Novgorod – the reference point for the Russian marched down the Volga, on the territory of Mordva, cheremisses and the Volga Bulgars.

Promotion to the Middle Volga

According to some reports, Kievan Rus was at war with the Volga Bulgaria under Vladimir the Red sun in the late tenth century. With the advent of the state centre in Vladimir-on-Klyazma, the Russian expansion in the Volga river has received a new impetus. Already in 1183 the troops of Suzdal Prince Vsevolod the Big nest in Alliance with many other Russian princes thoroughly ravaged Volga Bulgaria, arriving on ships to the Bulgar (below the current Kazan), and on the way back have conquered the Mordvins. In further war between Vladimir-Suzdal and the Volga Bulgaria have become commonplace (as, indeed, and trade).

the Horde invasion of time slowed down the Russian advance down the Volga, but in 1376 the soldiers of the Moscow Grand Duke Dmitry (future Donskoi) entered the Volga Bulgaria and came to Kazan, which in this context was first mentioned in Russian Chronicles. The battle was a success for the Russian, and its residents were forced to land from the Governor on business, that is, conclude our historians, the Volga Bulgarians agreed to become tributaries of Moscow. It is unknown if acted Prince Dmitry on his own behalf or as the agent of the Khan of the Golden Horde, designed to make this a vassal to the Khan of the country to be submissive (the latter seems more plausible), but from that moment began a long confrontation between Moscow and Kazan for the possession of the Middle Volga, which ended a few centuries in favor of Moscow.

In the middle of the XV century Kazan is enhanced by the fact that in 1437, became the capital of a large state, the breakaway of the Golden Horde. Starts short, but well-known history of the Kazan khanate. It is becoming a strong opponent of Moscow. During the period of internecine strife of the Russian princes, in 1444, they ravaged Nizhny Novgorod and Murom. The following year they repeated the trip, and they managed to seize the Grand Duke of Moscow Vassily II (the Dark), which they released under the promise to pay them a huge ransom. To the payment of the debt a city of northeast Russia was as collateral, as in the days of Baty, the busy Tatar baskaks.

the subjugation of the peoples of the Kingdom of Kazan

the Accession to the throne of the son of Vasily the Dark – Ivan III marked a turning point in the struggle between Moscow and Kazan. The hard war years 1467-1469 ended in a draw. 20 years later, in 1487, Ivan III began a new war, during which Russian troops took (July 9) Kazan and put in her on the throne loyal to Moscow Tsar. So Kazan fell into vassal dependence on Moscow. In the future, citizens of Kazan have not once been able to get rid of it.

In the middle of the XVI century, Moscow changed its tactics and moved from the policy of granting Volga States mediated sovereignty to their intended submission. First the Russians broke away from Kazan, the peoples who have long gravitated to the Volga Bulgaria. In 1524, in the land of the Cheremis (Mari), at the mouth of the Sura, was founded the city of Vasilsursk. In 1551, on the border of the lands of the Chuvash and Kazan Tatars Governor of Tsar Ivan IV laid the Sviyazhsk. And next year, another Moscow-Kazan confrontation ended with the capture of Kazan, the abolition of its statehood and annexation of the Kazan khanate to the Russian state.

However, the real conquest of the Kazan khanate stretched long. Soon after the conquest of Kazan, the mass uprising of the peoples of that state (Mari, Chuvash, Kazan Tatars, votyaks (Udmurts), Bashkirs) against the Moscow governors and governors. It lasted until 1558. But after that Mari, for example, rebelled twice (they were joined by neighbouring peoples), finally they were pacified only to 1586. Memories of freedom raised the peoples of the Middle Volga region against Moscow in the most powerful popular uprisings that shook the feudal Russia of Stepan Razina (1670-1671 gg.) and Yemelyan Pugachev (1773-1774).

the Caspian sea

the khanate of Kazan was the most powerful state, able to withstand Russia, on the Volga. After mastering the path of Kazan on the Volga was in fact open to the mouth. Astrakhan khanate, who controlled all the lower reaches of the great river, fell almost without resistance to the Russian army in 1556 (according to other sources, in 1555) year.

the Lower Volga region at that time was populated by Tatars, Mishars, Mordovians, Bashkirs, Nogays and Kalmyks. After the transition of the territories under the power of Moscow began to build Russian gorod (Simbirsk, Samara, Saratov, etc.), which is controlled by the governors of Moscow. Lands were distributed serving people – the nobles, who were moved here by their serfs or enslaves the local foreigners. But the free steppe was also attracted by the spontaneous flow of migrants Cossacks, who did not want to submit to the authority of the king and his governors. The Volga Cossacks became a basic power movement of Stepan Razin. Monarchs sought to “gosudarstvah” Volga Cossacks, giving privileges to rich Cossacks in exchange for political autonomy. In 1734 the Empress Anna Ioannovna has officially recognized the Volga Cossack army. However, the Volga Cossacks had massive support for the uprising of Yemelyan Pugachev, in connection with which the Volga army was abolished in 1775 .

Yaroslav Butakov

© Russian Seven

Recommended statesalaska… Share: Comments (1) Comments to the article “With which the peoples of the Russian fought to the Volga became a part of Russia” 07.03.2020 at 21:22 Semser Assa writes:

Not the Volga, and Edil! From the word Edil derived Attila!

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